In this guide we will be installing Debian 9 (aka stretch) on a physical server with 4 disks. The role of this machice is to be used as a Storage/NAS system. We will create a software RAID 10 setup, with LVM and LUKS full disk encryption. Our goals:

  • Install a Debian 9 with RAID10/LVM/LUKS.
  • Secure SSH.
  • Enable Firewall (UFW).
  • Setup bonding with the two network cards.
  • Setup remote system unlock with dropbear and initramfs.
  • Setup disk-monitoring with smartmontools and mdadm.
  • Setup kexec for faster reboots.

Computer specs

  • Type: HP ProLiant MicroServer
  • CPU: AMD Turion(tm) II Neo N40L Dual-Core Processor
  • RAM: 2GB
  • Disks: 4x3TB SATA
  • Network:
    • Broadcom Limited NetXtreme BCM5723 Gigabit Ethernet PCIe (on board)
    • Intel Corporation 82574L Gigabit Network Connection (extra)

Assumptions

  • Server IP: 192.168.1.10
  • Netmask: 255.255.255.0
  • Gateway IP: 192.168.1.1
  • DNS IP: 192.168.1.1
  • Hostname: storage.example.com

Install Debian stretch

Basic Settings

It would probably be more clear if there were screenshots for each step, but this was an installation on a physical server and taking photos for each step, opposes my laziness :). Just follow the instructions and you will be fine.

  • Choose: Install
  • Language: English
  • Country: other
  • Europe: Cyprus
  • Country to base default locale settings: United States
  • Keymap to use: American English
  • Primary network interface: enp3s0: Broadcom Limeted NetXtream BCM5723 Gigabit Ethernet PCIe
  • Let it get an IP from DHCP
  • Hostname: storage
  • Domain name: example.com
  • Root password: SomethingBigAndUnpredictable
  • Re-enter password to verify: SomethingBigAndUnpredictable
  • Full name: Sysadmin
  • Username: admin
  • Choose a password for the new user: AlsoSomethingBigAndUnpredictable
  • Re-enter password to verify: AlsoSomethingBigAndUnpredictable
  • Select your time zone: Asia/Nicosia
  • Partitioning method: Manual

Feel free to adjust the above according to your own preferences.

Partitioning

There are 4 disks of 3TB each (3.0 TB SATA):

  • SCSI1 (0,0,0) (sda)
  • SCSI2 (0,0,0) (sdb)
  • SCSI3 (0,0,0) (sdc)
  • SCSI4 (0,0,0) (sdd)

Not really SCSI but SATA in fact.

Partition the devices

Then create a raid partition for /boot:

  • Select the free space of sda and ‘Enter’
  • Create a new partition
  • New partition size: 512 MB
  • Location of new partition: Beginning
  • Use as: physical volume for RAID
  • Done setting up the partition

Lastly create the raid partition to be used by the encrypted volume:

  • Select the free space of sda and ‘Enter’
  • Create a new partition
  • New partition size: 3.0 TB
  • Location of new partition: Beginning
  • Use as: physical volume for RAID
  • Done setting up the partition

Repeat the above steps for sdb, sdc and sdd.

Setup Software RAID 10

First select ‘Configure software RAID’ and follow these steps:

  • Write the changes to the storage devices and configure RAID? Yes

The we create the software RAID (MD) devices. First we create device md0 for /boot:

  • Create MD Device
  • RAID10
  • Number of active devices inn the RAID10 array: 4
  • Number of spare devices inn the RAID10 array: 0
  • Active devices for the RAID10 array (use ‘Space bar’ to select)
    • /dev/sda2
    • /dev/sdb2
    • /dev/sdc2
    • /dev/sdd2
  • Press ‘Continue’ when done.

Then we create the software RAID device to be used for the encrypted volume (md1):

  • Create MD Device
  • RAID10
  • Number of active devices inn the RAID10 array: 4
  • Number of spare devices inn the RAID10 array: 0
  • Active devices for the RAID10 array (use the ‘Space bar’ to select)
    • /dev/sda3
    • /dev/sdb3
    • /dev/sdc3
    • /dev/sdd3
  • Press ‘Continue’ when done.
  • Press ‘Finish’ when done.

Create the /boot volume

When done press ‘Finish partitioning and write changes to disk’.`

When finished you will see a ‘RAID10 device #0 1GB Software RAID device’:

  • Select: #1 1.0GB
  • Use as: Ext4 journaling file system
  • Mount point: /boot
  • Done setting up the partition

Setup the encrypted volume

We will be using the software RAID /dev/md1 device for the encrypted volume.

Now select ‘Configure encrypted volumes’ and follow these steps:

  • Write the changes to disk and configure encrypted volumes? Yes
  • Create encrypted volumes

  • Select: /dev/md1
  • Erase data: yes (this will take a long time)
  • Done setting up the partition

  • Write the changes to disk and configure encrypted volumes? Yes

  • Finish
  • Encryption passphrase: MyVeryLongEncryptionPassphrase
  • Re-enter the passphrase to verify: MyVeryLongEncryptionPassphrase
  • Setup LVM

    Next we select the ‘Configure the Logical Volume Manager’ option and follow these steps:

    • Write the changes to disks and configure LVM? Yes
  • Create volume group

  • Volume group name: VG00
  • Devices for the new volume group:
    • /dev/mapper/md1_crypt
  • Then we create the Logical Volumes (LV). First let’s create a SWAP volume:

    • Create logical volume
    • Volume group: VG00
    • Logical volume name: SWAP
    • Logical volume size: 2048MB (2G is more than enough for this system)

    Lastly we create the system (ROOT) volume. On an enterprise installation we may want to use different volumes for /usr, /home, /var, etc but for a home installation we will be fine to use just one.

    • Create logical volume
    • Volume group: VG00
    • Logical volume name: ROOT
    • Logical volume size: 5996818MB (All available space)

    Press ‘Finish’ when done.

    Start the installation

    After all the steps are completed these Logical Volumes will be present on the system:

    • LVM VG VG00, LV ROOT 0 6.0 TB
    • LVM VG VG00, LV SWAP 0 2.0 GB

    Create the ROOT filesystem

    Under the ‘LVM VG VG00, LV ROOT 0 6.0 TB’ line select the ‘#1 6.0TB’ option:

    • Use as: Ext4 journaling file system
    • Mount point: /
    • Done setting up this partition

    Create the SWAP space

    Under the ‘LVM VG VG00, LV SWAP 0 2.0 GB’ line select the ‘#1 2.0GB’ option:

    • Use as: swap area
    • Done setting up this partition

    Now we are ready to write the changes and start the installation. Press the ‘Finish partitioning and write changes to disk’ option to continue:

    • Write the changes to disks? Yes

    Wait for the base install to finish. Then select a country close to you. No debian mirrors in Cyprus so I use UK:

    • Debian archive mirror country: United Kingdom
    • Debian archive mirror: ftp.uk.debian.org
    • HTTP proxy: (none)

    Wait for the APT configuration to Finish.

    • Participate in the package usage survey: no
  • Choose software to install:

    • SSH server
    • standard system utilities
  • Wait while software is installing

    • Install the GRUB boot loader to the master boot record.
    • Device for boot loader installation:
      • /dev/sda

    Wait for the installation to finish and reboot. Remember to remove the USB during the reboot cycle.

    Post install steps

    During start-up you will see the ‘Please unlock md1_crypt’ prompt. Type your LUKS passphrase to unlock the disk and continue.

    Update and Upgrade

    Login as root:

    # apt update && apt -y dist-upgrade
    

    Install essential packages

    # apt -y install vim htop multitail ntp byobu ufw unattended-upgrades downtimed
    

    Secure ssh

    You need to generate an SSH key pair on you PC, if you don’t have one (you should!):

    $ ssh-keygen -b 4096
    

    Copy the public key:

    $ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
    

    Paste the public key at the end of the /root/.ssh/authorized_keys file in your server and try to login from your PC:

    $ ssh root@192.168.1.10
    

    Some final adjustments on your SSH config (/etc/ssh/sshd_config). Change these values:

    Port 2233
    PasswordAuthentication no
    

    Restart SSH:

    # systemctl restart ssh.service
    

    Enable the UFW firewall

    We are using port 2233 for SSH so we need to allow that and enable the firewall:

    # ufw allow 2233/tcp
    # ufw enable
    

    Setup bonding

    Since we have two ethernet cards, we may take advantage of thr Linux bonding feature and join them as one. We will be using the Adaptive load balancing mode which provides load balancing of transmit, load balancing of receive for IPv4 and requires no configuration from the switch side.

    First we need to install ifenslave:

    # apt -y install ifenslave
    

    Set up this in /etc/network/interfaces:

    # This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
    # and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).
    
    source /etc/network/interfaces.d/*
    
    # The loopback network interface
    auto lo
    iface lo inet loopback
    
    # enp2s0 is manually configured, and slave to the "bond0" bonded NIC
    auto enp2s0
    iface eth0 inet manual
        bond-master bond0
    
    # enp3s01 is also manually configured, thus creating a 2-link bond.
    auto enp3s0
    iface eth1 inet manual
        bond-master bond0
    
    # bond0 is the bonded NIC and can be used like any other normal NIC.
    # bond0 is configured using static network information.
    auto bond0
    iface bond0 inet static
        address 192.168.1.10
        gateway 192.168.1.1
        netmask 255.255.255.0
    
        # bond0 uses adaptive load balancing
        bond-mode 6
        bond-miimon 100
        bond-slaves enp2s0 enp3s0
    

    An ifup bond0 should bring the bonded interface up. Or you can just reboot.

    Setup remote-unlock with dropbear

    The server will be a headless system, located in a difficult to access location. So we need a way to unlock it when a power failure occurs. The most convenient way to do this is to use a mandos server but convenience comes at a cost. A safer and easier way is to use dropbear during boot (initrd). The weak point of this solution is that the server will be basically offline until the sysadmin manually unlocks it, to boot.

    First we install dropbear for initrd:

    # apt -y install dropbear-initramfs
    

    Then we set a custom ssh port for dropbear. This better be different than the custom ssh port we used earlier. Change the dropbear port to 2244 in /etc/dropbear-initramfs/config:

    DROPBEAR_OPTIONS="-p 2244"
    

    Add the static IP in the initramtools configuration (/etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf):

    IP=192.168.1.10::192.168.1.1:255.255.255.0:storage:enp3s0:off
    

    Copy the authorized_keys file in /etc/dropbear-initramfs:

    # cp /root/.ssh/authorized_keys /etc/dropbear-initramfs/
    

    Regenerate the initrd file:

    # update-initramfs -u
    

    Now reboot and ssh to it to test it:

    $ ssh -p 2244 root@192.168.1.10
    

    If your pubkeys are in place you will enter a busybox shell. Enter the crypt-unlock command, supply your unlock passphrase and the system will boot to the encrypted system.

    Setup a local MTA for notifications

    We will be using our main mailserver as a smarthost for mail to go through.

    Install the postfix MTA and the mail utility:

    # apt -y install postfix mailutils
    

    Answer these questions:

    • General type of mail configuration: Internet with smarthost
    • System mail name: storage.example.com
    • SMTP relay host (blank for none): smtp.example.com

    Test it:

    # echo 'Testing #1' | mail -s 'Test #1' user@example.com
    

    If you get a mail in your mailbox then everything is set. If not extra configuration may be needed on the smarthost. Contact the sysadmin of the smarthost, or check the logs if you access to it.

    Setup pro-active disk monitoring

    Install smartmontools:

    # apt -y install smartmontools
    

    Enable S.M.A.R.T, offline testing, attribute autosave, short and long test on all 4 devices. Add these lines in /etc/smartd.conf:

    /dev/sda -a -d sat -o on -S on -s (S/../.././02|L/../../6/03) -m user@example.com -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner
    /dev/sdb -a -d sat -o on -S on -s (S/../.././02|L/../../6/03) -m user@example.com -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner
    /dev/sdc -a -d sat -o on -S on -s (S/../.././02|L/../../6/03) -m user@example.com -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner
    /dev/sdd -a -d sat -o on -S on -s (S/../.././02|L/../../6/03) -m user@example.com -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner
    

    Restart smartmontools:

    # systemctl restart smartmontools.service
    

    Setup Software RAID10 monitoring

    We also need to setup monitoring for the software raid. Add your email address in the /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf file:

    MAILADDR user@example.com
    

    Restart the mdmonitor service:

    # systemctl restart mdmonitor.service
    

    Setup kexec for faster reboots

    Kexec is a Linux kernel mechanism that can load a fresh kernel from a running system. This results in a “reboot” without in fact rebooting the computer. The system loads a new kernel, the system appears “rebooted” but skipping the BIOS?UEFI initialization, thus resulting in faster reboots.

    Install kexec-tools:

    # apt -y install kexec-tools
    

    The ‘Should kexec-tools handle reboots (sysvinit only)?’ question is related only to sysvinit systems. Since we are using systemd, it has no effect in our case.

    Now if you want to reboot instead of running reboot you can run systemctl kexec. The latter command will reboot the system without going though BIOS/UEFI, POST etc and your system downtime is minimized.

    And we are done! Store your server in a protected location, add a UPS for power backup and you are ready.

    References

    • https://wiki.debian.org/Bonding
    • https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UbuntuBonding
    • https://www.theo-andreou.org/?p=1579
    • https://wiki.recompile.se/wiki/Mandos
    • http://forums.ayksolutions.com/forum/documentation/knowledgebase/general-server-questions/641-proactively-monitoring-hard-drive-health-using-smartd

    Ceph is a distributed open source storage solution that supports Object Storage, Block Storage and File Storage.

    Other open source distributed storage systems are GlusterFS and HDFS.

    In this guide, we describe how to setup a basic Ceph Cluster for Block Storage. We have 25 nodes on our setup. The masternode is a MASS Region and Rack controller. The rest of the nodes are Ubuntu 16.04 deployed through MAAS. The recommended filesystem for Ceph is XFS and this is what is used on the nodes.

    This guide is based on the Quick Installation guide from the Ceph Documentation. This guide uses the ceph-deploy tool which is a relatively quick way to setup Ceph, especially for newbies. There is also the Manual Installation, deployment through Ansible and juju.

    Prerequisites

    Topology

    • 1 deploy node (masternode). MAAS region and rack controler is installed plus Ansible
    • 3 monitor nodes (node01,node11,node24). Ubuntu 16.04 on XFS deployed through MAAS
    • 20 OSD nodes (node02-10,12-23).

    Create an Ubuntu user on masternode

    It would be of convenience to create an ubuntu user on the masternode. with passwordless sudo access:

    $ sudo useradd -m -s /bin/bash ubuntu
    

    Run visudo and give passwordless sudo access to the ubuntu user:

    ubuntu  ALL=NOPASSWD:ALL
    

    Generate an SSH key pair for the ubuntu user:

    $ ssh-keygen -b 4096
    Generating public/private rsa key pair.
    Enter file in which to save the key (/home/ubuntu/.ssh/id_rsa): 
    Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
    Enter same passphrase again: 
    Your identification has been saved in /home/ubuntu/.ssh/id_rsa.
    Your public key has been saved in /home/ubuntu/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
    The key fingerprint is:
    SHA256:t1zWURVk7j6wJPkA3VmbcHtAKh3EB0kyanORVbiiBkU ubuntu@masternode
    The key's randomart image is:
    +---[RSA 4096]----+
    |       .E +**B=*=|
    |        ..o==oOo+|
    |       .+.o.o=.=.|
    |      .. oo.o....|
    |       .S..=oo.. |
    |        oo += +  |
    |       .  o  o o |
    |                .|
    |                 |
    +----[SHA256]-----+
    

    Deploy the /home/ubuntu/.ssh/id_rsa.pub pubkey on all the nodes (append in /home/ubuntu/.ssh/authorized_keys). You could add this pubkey on the MAAS user before deploying Ubuntu 16.04 on the nodes.

    Set /etc/hosts

    $ for ID in {01..24}; do echo "$(dig +short node${ID}.maas @127.0.0.1) node${ID}.maas node${ID}"; done > nodes.txt
    

    It should look like this:

    192.168.10.28 node01.maas node01
    192.168.10.29 node02.maas node02
    192.168.10.30 node03.maas node03
    192.168.10.31 node04.maas node04
    192.168.10.32 node05.maas node05
    192.168.10.33 node06.maas node06
    192.168.10.34 node07.maas node07
    192.168.10.35 node08.maas node08
    192.168.10.36 node09.maas node09
    192.168.10.37 node10.maas node10
    192.168.10.38 node11.maas node11
    192.168.10.39 node12.maas node12
    192.168.10.40 node13.maas node13
    192.168.10.41 node14.maas node14
    192.168.10.42 node16.maas node16
    192.168.10.43 node17.maas node17
    192.168.10.44 node18.maas node18
    192.168.10.45 node19.maas node19
    192.168.10.46 node20.maas node20
    192.168.10.47 node21.maas node21
    192.168.10.48 node22.maas node22
    192.168.10.49 node23.maas node23
    192.168.10.50 node24.maas node24
    

    Now you can append the result in /etc/hosts:

    $ cat nodes.txt | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts
    

    Ansible setup

    Use this setup in /etc/ansible/hosts on masternode:

    [masternode]
    masternode
    
    [nodes]
    node01
    node02
    node03
    node04
    node05
    node06
    node07
    node08
    node09
    node10
    node11
    node12
    node13
    node14
    node15
    node16
    node17
    node18
    node19
    node20
    node21
    node22
    node23
    node24
    
    [ceph-mon]
    node01
    node11
    node24
    
    [ceph-osd]
    node02
    node03
    node04
    node05
    node06
    node07
    node08
    node09
    node10
    node12
    node13
    node14
    node15
    node16
    node17
    node18
    node19
    node20
    node21
    node22
    node23
    

    Install python on all the nodes

    $ for ID in {01..24}
    > do
    >  ssh node${ID} "sudo apt -y install python-minimal"
    > done
    

    Ensure time synchronization of the nodes

    Install the theodotos/debian-ntp role from Ansible Galaxy:

    $ sudo ansible-galaxy install theodotos.debian-ntp
    

    Create a basic playbook ntp-init.yml:

    ---
    - hosts: nodes
      remote_user: ubuntu
      become: yes
      roles:
         - { role: theodotos.debian-ntp, ntp.server: masternode }
    

    Apply the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook ntp-init.yml
    

    Verify that the monitor nodes are time synchronized:

    $ ansible ceph-mon -a 'timedatectl'
    node11 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
          Local time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30 UTC
      Universal time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30 UTC
            RTC time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30
           Time zone: Etc/UTC (UTC, +0000)
     Network time on: yes
    NTP synchronized: yes
     RTC in local TZ: no
    
    node24 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
          Local time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30 UTC
      Universal time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30 UTC
            RTC time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30
           Time zone: Etc/UTC (UTC, +0000)
     Network time on: yes
    NTP synchronized: yes
     RTC in local TZ: no
    
    node01 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
          Local time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30 UTC
      Universal time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30 UTC
            RTC time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30
           Time zone: Etc/UTC (UTC, +0000)
     Network time on: yes
    NTP synchronized: yes
     RTC in local TZ: no
    

    Check also the OSD nodes:

    $ ansible ceph-osd -a 'timedatectl'
    

    Install Ceph

    Install ceph-deploy

    On masternode:

    $ sudo apt install ceph-deploy
    

    Create a new cluster and set the monitor nodes (must be odd numbered):

    $ ceph-deploy new node01 node11 node24
    

    Install ceph on master node and all other nodes:

    $ ceph-deploy install masternode node{01..24}
    

    Deploy the monitors and gather the keys:

    $ ceph-deploy mon create-initial
    

    Prepare the OSD nodes

    Create the OSD directories

    Create the OSD directories on the OSD nodes:

    $ I=0;
    $ for ID in {02..10} {12..14} {16..23}
    > do 
    >  ssh -l ubuntu node${ID} "sudo mkdir /var/local/osd${I}"
    >  I=$((${I}+1))
    > done;
    

    Verify that the OSD directories are created:

    $ ansible ceph-osd -a "ls /var/local" | cut -d\| -f1 | xargs -n2 | sort
    node02 osd0
    node03 osd1
    node04 osd2
    node05 osd3
    node06 osd4
    node07 osd5
    node08 osd6
    node09 osd7
    node10 osd8
    node12 osd9
    node13 osd10
    node14 osd11
    node16 osd12
    node17 osd13
    node18 osd14
    node19 osd15
    node20 osd16
    node21 osd17
    node22 osd18
    node23 osd19
    

    Nodes 01, 11 and 24 are excluded because those are the monitor nodes.

    Fix OSD permissions

    Because of some bug we need to change the OSD directories owneship to ceph:ceph. Otherwise you will get this:

    ** ERROR: error creating empty object store in /var/local/osd0: (13) Permission denied
    

    Change the ownership of the OSD directories on the OSD nodes:

    $ I=0;
    $ for ID in {02..10} {12..14} {16..23}
    > do 
    >   ssh -l ubuntu node${ID} "sudo chown ceph:ceph /var/local/osd${I}"
    >   I=$((${I}+1))
    > done;
    

    Prepare the OSDs

    $ I=0
    $ for ID in {02..10} {12..14} {16..23}
    > do
    >   ceph-deploy --username ubuntu osd prepare node${ID}:/var/local/osd${I}
    >   I=$((${I}+1))
    > done
    

    Activate the OSDs

    For nodes 02 – 10:

    $ I=0
    > for ID in {02..10} {12..14} {16..23}
    > do
    >   ceph-deploy --username ubuntu osd activate node${ID}:/var/local/osd${I}
    >   I=$((${I}+1))
    > done
    

    Deploy the configuration file and admin key

    Now we need to deploy the configuration file and admin key to the admin node and our Ceph nodes. This will save us from having to specify the monitor address and keyring every time we execute a Ceph cli command.

    $ ceph-deploy admin masternode node{01..24}
    

    Set the keyring to be world readable:

    $ sudo chmod +r /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring
    

    Test and verify

    $ ceph health
    HEALTH_WARN too few PGs per OSD (9 < min 30)
    HEALTH_ERR clock skew detected on mon.node11, mon.node24; 64 pgs are stuck inactive for more than 300 seconds; 64 pgs stuck inactive; 64 pgs stuck unclean; Monitor clock skew detected 
    

    Out newly build cluster is not healthy. We need to increase Placement Groups. The formula is the number_of_minimum_expected_PGs (30) times the number_of_OSDs (20) and rounded to the closest power of 2:

    30x20=500 => pg_num=512
    

    Increase PGs:

    $ ceph osd pool set rbd pg_num 512
    

    Now we run ceph health again:

    $ ceph health
    HEALTH_WARN pool rbd pg_num 512 > pgp_num 64
    

    Still some tweaking needs to be done. We need to adjust pgp_num to 512:

    $ ceph osd pool set rbd pgp_num 512
    

    And we are there at last:

    $ ceph health
    HEALTH_OK
    

    Create a Ceph Block Device device

    Check the available storage:

    $ ceph df
    MapGLOBAL:
        SIZE       AVAIL      RAW USED     %RAW USED 
        11151G     10858G         293G          2.63 
    POOLS:
        NAME     ID     USED     %USED     MAX AVAIL     OBJECTS 
        rbd      0       306         0         3619G           4 
    

    Now we need to create a RADOS Block Device (RBD) to hold our data.

    $ rbd create clusterdata --size 4T --image-feature layering
    

    Check the new block device:

    $ rbd ls -l
    NAME         SIZE PARENT FMT PROT LOCK 
    clusterdata 4096G          2
    

    Map the block device:

    $ sudo rbd map clusterdata --name client.admin
    /dev/rbd0
    

    Format the clusterdata device:

    $ sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/rbd0
    

    Mount the blobk device:

    $ mkdir /srv/clusterdata
    $ mount /dev/rbd0 /srv/clusterdata
    

    Now we have a block device for data that is distributed among the 21 storage nodes.

    Here’s is a summary of some useful monitoring and troubleshooting commands for ceph

    $ ceph health
    $ ceph health detail
    $ ceph status (ceph -s)
    $ ceph osd stat
    $ ceph osd tree
    $ ceph mon dump
    $ ceph mon stat
    $ ceph -w
    $ ceph quorum_status --format json-pretty
    $ ceph mon_status --format json-pretty
    $ ceph df
    

    If you run into trouble contact the awesome folks at the #ceph IRC channel, hosted on Open and Free Technology Community IRC network.

    Start over

    In case you messed up the procedure and you need to start over you can use the following commands:

    $ ceph-deploy purge masternode node{01..24}
    $ ceph-deploy purgedata masternode node{01..24}
    $ ceph-deploy forgetkeys
    $ for ID in {02..11} {11..23}; do ssh node${ID} "sudo rm -fr /var/local/osd*"; done
    $ rm ceph.conf ceph-deploy-ceph.log .cephdeploy.conf
    

    NOTE: this procedure will destroy your Ceph cluster along with all the data!

    Conclusions

    Using ceph-deploy maybe an easy way to get started with Ceph, but it does not provide much customization. For a more fine tuned setup you maybe better with the Manual Installation, even though there is a steeper learning curve.

    References

    • http://docs.ceph.com/docs/master/start/
    • https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/tzdata/+bug/1554806
    • http://docs.ceph.com/docs/jewel/rados/configuration/filesystem-recommendations/
    • http://www.virtualtothecore.com/en/adventures-ceph-storage-part-1-introduction/

    Wiki.js is an elegant looking wiki based on Markdown. It supports LDAP and many more authentication mechanisms. In this guide we describe how to install Wiki.js on Ubuntu 16.04.

    Prerequisites

    • An Ubuntu 16.04 instance.

    Install curl, Node.js v8.x and build-essential:

    # apt -y install curl
    # curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_8.x | bash -
    # apt -y install nodejs build-essential
    

    Install MongoDB v3.4

    # apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv 0C49F3730359A14518585931BC711F9BA15703C6
    # echo "deb [ arch=amd64,arm64 ] http://repo.mongodb.org/apt/ubuntu xenial/mongodb-org/3.4 multiverse" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-3.4.list
    # apt update
    # apt -y install mongodb-org
    

    Start MongoDB:

    # systemctl start mongodb
    

    Enable MongoDB at startup:

    # systemctl enable mongodb
    

    Install git

    The version that comes with Ubuntu 16.04 fills the minimum requirements so there is no need to install it from upstream.

    # apt -y install git
    

    Install Wiki.js

    # mkdir /srv/wiki.js
    # cd /srv/wiki.js
    # npm install wiki.js@latest
    

    You will get this message:

    > Browse to http://your-server:3000/ to configure your wiki! (Replaced your-server with the hostname or IP of your server!)
    ▐   ⠂    ▌ I'll wait until you're done ;)
    

    Do as the message says. Let the wizard wait until we are done, and open another shell to work with.

    Setup nginx

    Install Nginx:

    # apt -y install nginx
    

    Create this VirtualHost configuration (/etc/nginx/sites-available/wiki.example.com.conf):

    server {
        listen      [::]:80 ipv6only=off;
        server_name wiki.example.com;
        return      301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
    }
    server {
        listen 443 ssl http2;
        listen [::]:443 ssl http2;
        server_name  wiki.example.com;
    
        ssl_session_timeout 1d;
        ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:50m;
        ssl_session_tickets off;
    
        ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
        ssl_ciphers "EECDH+ECDSA+AESGCM EECDH+aRSA+AESGCM EECDH+ECDSA+SHA384 EECDH+ECDSA+SHA256 EECDH+aRSA+SHA384 EECDH+aRSA+SHA256 EECDH EDH+aRSA !RC4 !aNULL !eNULL !LOW !3DES !MD5 !EXP !PSK !SRP !DSS";
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
    
        ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/wiki.example.com.crt;
        ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/wiki.example.com.key;
        ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/CA.crt;
    
        location / {
            proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
            proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
            proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:3000;
            proxy_http_version 1.1;
            proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
            proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";
            proxy_next_upstream error timeout http_502 http_503 http_504;
        }
    }
    

    Enable the wiki.example.com VirtualHost:

    # cd /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
    # ln -s ../sites-available/wiki.example.com.conf
    # unlink default
    

    Restart Nginx:

    # systemctl restart nginx
    

    Configure Wiki.js

    After the installation you will be asked if you wish to run the configuration wizard. Select this and continue:

    Yes, run configuration wizard on port 3000 (recommended)
    

    Now browse to http://wiki.example.com/ and follow the installation wizard:

    • Welcome!: Start
    • System Check (if all good): Continue
    • General:
      • Site title: ExampleWiki
      • Host: https://wiki.example.com
      • Port: 3000
      • Site UI Language: English
      • Public Access: Not selected
      • Press: Continue
    • Important Considerations: Continue
    • Database: mongodb://localhost:27017/wiki
    • Database Check: Continue:
    • Paths:
      • Local Data Path: ./data
      • Local Repository Path: ./repo
    • Git Repository: Skip this step
    • Git Repository Check: Continue
    • Administrator Account
      • Administrator Email: admin@example.com
      • Password: MySecretCombination
      • ConfirmPassword: MySecretCombination
    • Finalizing: Start

    Enable Wiki.js on startup

    # npm install -g pm2
    # pm2 startup
    # pm2 save
    

    Setup LDAP

    This is an optional step for those wishing to integrate Wiki.js in their LDAP infrastructure.

    Trust CUT IST ISSUING CA

    Connect to the LDAP (AD) server and get all certificates:

    openssl s_client -showcerts -connect dcs03ist00.lim.tepak.int:636 | tee ldap.log
    

    Hit ‘Ctrl-C’ to end the command.

    The certificate with the ID ‘1’ in ldap.log is the ISSUING CA certificate. Extract the CUT IST ISSUING CA certificate and save it in cut_issuing_ca.crt:

    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    MIIF7DCCA9SgAwIBAgITcgAAAAakujIFDl5tvQAAAAAABjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsF
    ADBNMQswCQYDVQQGEwJDWTEoMCYGA1UEChMfQ1lQUlVTIFVOSVZFUlNJVFkgT0Yg
    VEVDSE5PTE9HWTEUMBIGA1UEAxMLQ1VUIFJPT1QgQ0EwHhcNMTUwMzA5MTAyMjAy
    WhcNMjAwMzA5MTAzMjAyWjBeMRMwEQYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYDaW50MRUwEwYKCZIm
    iZPyLGQBGRYFdGVwYWsxEzARBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFgNsaW0xGzAZBgNVBAMTEkNV
    VCBJU1QgSVNTVUlORyBDQTCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEB
    AMPHOqer+ovT+Y99lI4dSYa+XHAnCaup8vbLE9x4iKEjq9gfYq8Gs3Aujx6h32Y8
    DLJcKHgxlzqwn6zzq2YSDziFPCka5bAZswaFqvD6fm22oujRmlUBDrW37OsP3nwJ
    gT5GMUSzvE0ZvcdjotCm2iBDfGryJgU3PFgAvPXVyFq8bV1jTYBP8sqsWssIdOMg
    doN8RLKj6gwJIwA1cvhvnuePU6a2HlHI314GaUqNtyX5PZ5VbUNIQXBt+McPNP0d
    sg8yKzfBtl6V4U9xheKmdKxfIB0rN1L/uqzoewIrwUXab7l9kbSYoKqiPZkYnpEi
    TQ8msXa/6TL0grQR085sugUCAwEAAaOCAbIwggGuMBAGCSsGAQQBgjcVAQQDAgEA
    MB0GA1UdDgQWBBR0NThxWu0JH7JLfLf75h9dis6S6DCBnwYDVR0gBIGXMIGUMIGR
    BgsrBgEEAYLiewEBATCBgTBOBggrBgEFBQcCAjBCHkAAQwBlAHIAdABpAGYAaQBj
    AGEAdABpAG8AbgAgAFAAcgBhAGMAdABpAGMAZQAgAFMAdABhAHQAZQBtAGUAbgB0
    MC8GCCsGAQUFBwIBFiNodHRwczovL3BraS5jdXQuYWMuY3kvcGtpL2Nwcy5odG1s
    ADAZBgkrBgEEAYI3FAIEDB4KAFMAdQBiAEMAQTALBgNVHQ8EBAMCAYYwDwYDVR0T
    AQH/BAUwAwEB/zAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBSY/OKi6F/HKZRvR0574L5dNf4KwzA5BgNV
    HR8EMjAwMC6gLKAqhihodHRwOi8vcGtpLmN1dC5hYy5jeS9jcmwvQ1VULVJPT1Qt
    Q0EuY3JsMEQGCCsGAQUFBwEBBDgwNjA0BggrBgEFBQcwAoYoaHR0cDovL3BraS5j
    dXQuYWMuY3kvcGtpL0NVVC1ST09ULUNBLmNydDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFAAOCAgEA
    IVJPKacKldP8WEFkCNGJq9PIFr5R0MuD6DUSifnnj94Z004ET29+C3sesUsWHMLd
    p1LA+6pmF8JUAUg5Zzab2gV3vHVorYIPlPs2IorhTlnl5k9UCAjBuT3HV1kcCt2R
    L601KYIYN3QIiVaA3k7xOPp+Y9nL/OlvjE3S6MVeC2WJYl1Ai+eZWQpL/SvAA8vH
    NQzCqqNUnCT1zr9Uei71r0elgtoevsRmWRVWPmOl4Sft0amJ5fXDhYvN0KiktDTt
    SeBy+YY48vzbhTRPFhUsj84ePyQcBqtLWQlyhmFs8b+gtSbmYWA1AnWgA+/Fd37Z
    k75/x8qqnyZ4BFBKzEzukIKyapnRf8ARzL6oHo7XIXmkUb4cBzf5asNkqRRcUxrl
    IEPGuGjr0+yo49f0uP3v+xE+Vyam27B3A4hhrgyqIe26/FxlbkyHT7BLhxCSu7kX
    hymb9rZwGy8LR6JVCHhOllXm0eaKiRxFBYcgofekgUfjL5Coip6wAzabtrqE38zX
    EkQ6sFi4hFM2ifVKA6lU1OUfeK1j5hEcmGzyCS+4aWXeY9/tTlDj28Z04cp34jla
    Oc2Q4VBmO6yA1d6L22o9gTb4gvTcghHOJezWeo5PFsSD+GmJfq4JLvaHk9gsbb5D
    099bze3eSDCISoR5ce6mdkD6pr5PfsVfZHhSktc4nk4=
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    

    Verify the certificate with:

    openssl x509 -text -in cut_issuing_ca.crt
    

    Add the CUT ISSUING CA in the trusted chain of the system:

    cp cut_issuing_ca.crt /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/
    update-ca-certificates
    

    Configure LDAP for Wiki.js

    Make these changes in /srv/wiki.js/config.yml:

      ldap:
        enabled: true
        url: 'ldap://ldap.example.com:389'
        bindDn: 'cn=wiki,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com'
        bindCredentials: 'MyLDAPCredentials'
        searchBase: 'ou=people,dc=example,dc=com'
        searchFilter: '(uid={{username}})'
        tlsEnabled: true
        tlsCertPath: '/etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt'
    

    Give Access permissions to authenticated users

    Visit the Admin URL:

    https://wiki.example.com/admin

    Click on ‘Users’. You will get a list of users. You can give ‘Read and Write’ access to them from the ‘Access Rights’ field and you can upgrade them to ‘Global Administrators’ from the ‘Role Override’ field.

    NOTE: For LDAP the users need to login first before they are allowed to write.

    Enjoy your newly created Wiki!

    References

    • https://docs.requarks.io/wiki
    • https://nodejs.org/en/download/package-manager/#debian-and-ubuntu-based-linux-distributions
    • https://docs.mongodb.com/manual/tutorial/install-mongodb-on-ubuntu/

    LXD is a relatively new technology by Canonical. It is a container hypervisor that builds on top of LXC. It shares some similarities with Docker, but LXD focuses on full blown containerized systems, instead of containerized applications.

    LXD/LXC creates lighter systems than VM hypervisors, and it is an easy way to experiment with different software without messing up with your system. You can also use it in production, to run Linux systems with much greater density than on VM hypervisors. The only drawback is that the container must be the same OS as the host (Linux in this case) and it depends on the host for kernel functionality (e.g. modules etc).

    In this guide we will build an LXD container with two virtual NICs which are attached to the physical NIC of it’s host using bridged networking.

    Prerequisites

    • An Ubuntu 16.04 host with two physical NICs

    Prepare host networking

    Install dependencies

    # apt -y install bridge-utils
    

    Setup networking on the host

    There are two interfaces on the host enp3s0 and enp5s0. The first one, enp3s0 is the primary and connects to the main, DHCP enabled, internal network. The second one is connected to an isolated internal network where some critical services are running. There is no DHCP in the isolated network.

    Prepare your /etc/network/interfaces configuration file like this:

    # The loopback network interface 
    auto lo
    iface lo inet loopback
    
    # The main Bridge
    auto br0
    iface br0 inet dhcp
        bridge-ifaces enp3s0
        bridge-ports enp3s0
        up ip link set enp3s0 up
    
    # The primary network interface
    iface enp3s0 inet manual
    
    # The secondary Bridge
    auto br1
    iface br1 inet manual
            bridge-ifaces enp5s0
            bridge-ports enp5s0
            up ip link set enp5s0 up
    
    # The secondary network interface
    iface enp5s0 inet manual
    

    Setup LXC/ LXD

    Installation of LXD

    # apt -y install lxd
    

    Prepare a new profile

    We need a profile with two NICs. First create a new profile:

    # lxc profile copy default dualnic
    

    Then edit the new profile with lxc profile edit dualnic:

    config:
      user.network_mode: link-local
    description: Dual nic profile
    devices:
      eth0:
        name: eth0
        nictype: bridged
        parent: br0
        type: nic
      eth1:
        name: eth1
        nictype: bridged
        parent: br1
        type: nic
    name: dualnic
    

    The names of the virtual interfaces of the container will be eth0 for the primary and eth1 for the secondary.

    Launch the container

    Now we want to launch a Debian jessie container, which we will retrieve from the prepared images on the

    # lxc launch images:debian/jessie mycontainer -p dualnic
    

    List the container:

    # lxc list
    +-------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
    |    NAME     |  STATE  |         IPV4         | IPV6 |    TYPE    | SNAPSHOTS |
    +-------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
    | mycontainer | RUNNING | 192.168.0.122 (eth0) |      | PERSISTENT | 0         |
    +-------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
    

    The IP listed above was set by the DHCP server in the primary network.

    Connect to the container:

    # lxc exec mycontainer bash
    

    Setup container’s networking

    Edit /etc/network/interfaces inside our container:

    auto lo
    iface lo inet loopback
    
    auto eth0
    iface eth0 inet dhcp
    
    auto eth1
    iface eth1 inet static
            address 172.16.16.100
            netmask 255.255.255.0
            network 172.16.16.0
            broadcast 172.16.16.255
            up ip route add 10.10.10.0/24  via 172.16.16.1 dev eth1
            up ip route add 10.10.20.0/24  via 172.16.16.1 dev eth1
    

    The routes 10.10.10.0/24 and 10.10.20.0/24 are internal routes that need to be reached though the secondary network.

    Take a clean snapshot

    Before you start working on your container, it is a good idea to get a clean snapshot, so you can revert to it, in case you mess something up.

    # lxc snapshot mycontainer
    

    If you want to learn more about the and features I urge you to read the excellent introduction to LXD 2.0 by Stéphane Graber

    References

    • https://linuxcontainers.org/
    • https://www.ubuntu.com/containers/lxd
    • https://insights.ubuntu.com/2016/03/14/the-lxd-2-0-story-prologue/
    • https://stgraber.org/2016/03/11/lxd-2-0-blog-post-series-012/
    • https://insights.ubuntu.com/2015/11/10/converting-eth0-to-br0-and-getting-all-your-lxc-or-lxd-onto-your-lan/

    Rocket.Chat is a free/open source software for team collaboration. It is a full featured platform and an ideal alternative to Slack, for organizations that are dedicated to the Free Software philosophy.

    In this guide we will demonstrate how you can setup Rocket.Chat for your organization.

    Prerequisites

    • A Debian stretch VM or server.
    • A FQDN pointing to the system’s IP. We will be using rocket.example.com throughout this guide.

    Installation of rocket.chat

    Install the Snappy package manager

    Snappy is not installed on Debian by default, so we need to install it:

    # apt install snapd ca-certificates
    

    Install Rocket.Chat

    # snap install rocketchat-server
    

    Check its status:

    # systemctl status snap.rocketchat-server.rocketchat-server.service
    ● snap.rocketchat-server.rocketchat-server.service - Service for snap application rocketchat-server.rocketchat-server
       Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/snap.rocketchat-server.rocketchat-server.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
       Active: active (running) since Tue 2017-01-03 12:27:50 PST; 12min ago
     Main PID: 24891 (node)
        Tasks: 10 (limit: 4915)
       CGroup: /system.slice/snap.rocketchat-server.rocketchat-server.service
               └─24891 node /snap/rocketchat-server/326/main.js
    
    Jan 03 12:27:50 rocket systemd[1]: Started Service for snap application rocketchat-server.rocketchat-server.
    

    Check its port (default is 3000):

    # ss -lnptu | grep 3000
    tcp    LISTEN     0      128       *:3000                  *:*                   users:(("node",pid=24891,fd=13))
    

    Looks OK

    Configure TLS

    Install nginx

    The core application does not support TLS so we will be setting up an nginx reverse proxy on top of it.

    Install NGINX and certbot from Let’s Encrypt:

    # apt -y install nginx python-certbot-nginx
    

    Create the VirtualHost

    We need to create this file: /etc/nginx/sites-available/rocket.example.com:

    # Upstreams
    upstream backend {
        server 127.0.0.1:3000;
    }
    
    # HTTP Server
    server {
        listen 80;
        server_name rocket.example.com;
    
        error_log /var/log/nginx/rocketchat.access.log;
    
        location / {
            proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:3000/;
            proxy_http_version 1.1;
            proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
            proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";
            proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
    
            proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
            proxy_set_header X-Forward-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
            proxy_set_header X-Forward-Proto http;
            proxy_set_header X-Nginx-Proxy true;
    
            proxy_redirect off;
        }
    }
    

    Enable the VirtualHost:

    cd /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
    ln -s ../sites-available/rocket.example.com
    systemctl reload nginx
    

    Generate the certificate

    certbot --nginx run -d rocket.example.com
    
    • Enter email address: admin@example.com
    • Agree to the ToS
    • Enforce HTTPS: Secure

    The VirtualHost file (/etc/nginx/sites-available/rocket.example.com) should look like this after the creation of the Let’s Encrypt certificate:

    # Upstreams
    upstream backend {
        server 127.0.0.1:3000;
    }
    
    server {
        listen 80;
        server_name rocket.example.com;
    
        error_log /var/log/nginx/rocketchat.access.log;
    
        location / {
            proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:3000/;
            proxy_http_version 1.1;
            proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
            proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";
            proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
    
            proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
            proxy_set_header X-Forward-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
            proxy_set_header X-Forward-Proto http;
            proxy_set_header X-Nginx-Proxy true;
    
            proxy_redirect off;
        }
    
        listen 443 ssl; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/rocket.example.com/fullchain.pem; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/rocket.example.com/privkey.pem; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_session_cache shared:le_nginx_SSL:1m; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_session_timeout 1440m; # managed by Certbot
    
    ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on; # managed by Certbot
    
    ssl_ciphers "ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256 ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384 ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256 ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384 DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256 DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256 EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA"; # managed by Certbot
    
        if ($scheme != "https") {
            return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
        } # managed by Certbot
    }
    

    Now visit the website to test it: http://rocket.example.com (it should redirect you to https://rocket.example.com)

    Creating an admin account

    Register a new account. You will get this warning:

    WARNING: the setting site URL is configured to http://localhost and you are accessing from https://rocket.example.com. do you want to change to https://rocket.example.com?

    You should ofcourse answer ‘Yes’.

    This first user created is an admin user. You can set global preferences from https://rocket.example.com/admin. Now users can visit the website and register with it. You may wish to Allow Notifications when you are prompted by your browser on your first visit to the site. Rocket.Chat supports many other authentication backends, including LDAP which is described in the next step.

    Besides the web service you can also download native applications for Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, Android and iOS.

    Configure LDAP

    This is an optional step, but recommended if your organization has an LDAP or Active Directory setup. In this example we are using the Fusiondirectory setup from our previous guide.

    Create a service account for rocket.chat, using the DSA module of Fusiondirectory:

    • Username: cn=rocketchat,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
    • Password: MySecretCombination

    Now go to https://rocket.example.com/admin using an admin account and set these:

    • Enable: True
    • Login Fallback: True
    • Host: ldap.example.com
    • Port: 389
    • Encryption: StartTLS
    • CA Cert: Paste the contents of your internal ROOT CA certificate (example.com-rootCA.crt for example)
    • Reject Unauthorized: True
    • Domain Base: ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
    • Use Custom Domain Search: False
    • Domain Search User: cn=rocketchat,ou=dsa,example,dc=com
    • Domain Search Password: MySecretCombination
    • Domain Search User ID: uid
    • Domain Search Object Class: person
    • Domain Search Object Category: Leave Empty
    • Username Field: Leave Empty

    Leave the default settings for the rest and press the SAVE CHANGES button

    You can use the TEST CONNECTION button to test the connection.

    You can now try to login using your LDAP username and password.

    References

    • https://rocket.chat/
    • http://snapcraft.io/docs/core/install#debian
    • https://rocket.chat/docs/installation/manual-installation/ubuntu/snaps
    • https://rocket.chat/docs/installation/manual-installation/configuring-ssl-reverse-proxy
    • https://rocket.chat/docs/administrator-guides/authentication/ldap/

    Most registrars they provide a DNS service when you purchase a domain name. But having your own DNS servers means more control to you. And if you are an aspiring sysadmin, you will find it fun and educational. We will be using BIND 9 which is, by far the most popular DNS implementation.

    Prerequisites

    We will need two systems (VMs or containers) preferably on different geographic locations and different providers. One will be the master and the other system, the slave. This guide works for recent Debian or Ubuntu systems.

    Some assumptions:

    • Master DNS:
      • Hostname: ns1.example.com
      • IP: 1.1.1.1
    • Slave DNS:
      • Hostname: ns2.example.com
      • IP: 2.2.2.2
    • Webserver:
      • Hostname: example.com (www.example.com is an alias)
      • IP: 3.3.3.3
    • Main mailserver:
      • Hostname: mx1.example.com ({mail,smtp,pop,imap,webmail}.example.com are aliases)
      • IP: 4.4.4.4
    • Backup mailserver:
      • Hostname: mx2.example.com
      • IP: 5.5.5.5

    Preparations

    Setup the /etc/hosts file

    On master’s /etc/hosts:

    1.1.1.1    ns1.example.com ns1
    

    On slave’s /etc/hosts:

    2.2.2.2    ns2.example.com ns2
    

    Installing BIND

    NOTE: all commands must be applied to both master and slave unless otherwise stated

    apt-get -y install bind9 bind9utils
    

    Allow port 53:

    ufw allow 53
    

    Configure the global options

    Make the following changes in the /etc/bind/named.conf.options of both servers:

    --- /etc/bind/named.conf.options        2016-12-12 14:44:57.163515708 -0500
    +++ /etc/bind/named.conf.options.new    2016-12-12 14:52:29.749268250 -0500
    @@ -1,5 +1,7 @@
     options {
            directory "/var/cache/bind";
    +       recursion no;
    +       allow-transfer { none; };
    
            // If there is a firewall between you and nameservers you want
            // to talk to, you may need to fix the firewall to allow multiple
    

    Configure the local options

    On master’s /etc/bind/named.conf.local:

    --- /etc/bind/named.conf.local  2016-12-12 20:06:27.000000000 +0000
    +++ /etc/bind/named.conf.local.new      2016-12-12 20:07:03.000000000 +0000
    @@ -6,3 +6,8 @@
     // organization
     //include "/etc/bind/zones.rfc1918";
    
    +zone "example.com" {
    +    type master;
    +    file "/etc/bind/db.example.com";
    +    allow-transfer { 2.2.2.2; };
    +};
    

    On slave’s /etc/bind/named.conf.local:

    --- /etc/bind/named.conf.local  2016-11-01 13:02:24.000000000 -0400
    +++ /etc/bind/named.conf.local.new      2016-12-12 15:09:47.445235343 -0500
    @@ -6,3 +6,8 @@
     // organization
     //include "/etc/bind/zones.rfc1918";
    
    +zone "example.com" {
    +    type slave;
    +    file "db.example.com";
    +    masters { 1.1.1.1; };
    +};
    

    Create the zone file

    On master server create the zone file (/etc/bind/db.example.com):

    $TTL 3600
    @    IN    SOA    ns1.example.com.    root.example.com. (
                                                2016121201
                                                7200
                                                3600
                                                1209600
                                                180 )
    
    ; NS Records
    @       300    IN      NS              ns1.example.com.
    @       300    IN      NS              ns2.example.com.
    
    ; MX Records
    @       300    IN      MX      10      mx1.example.com.
    @       300    IN      MX      20      mx2.example.com.
    
    ; Address records
    @       300    IN      A               3.3.3.3
    ns1     300    IN      A               1.1.1.1
    ns2     300    IN      A               2.2.2.2
    mx1     300    IN      A               4.4.4.4
    mx1     300    IN      A               5.5.5.5
    
    ; Alias (Canonical Name) records
    www     300    IN      CNAME           example.com.
    mail    300    IN      CNAME           mx1.example.com.
    smtp    300    IN      CNAME           mx1.example.com.
    imap    300    IN      CNAME           mx1.example.com.
    pop     300    IN      CNAME           mx1.example.com.
    webmail 300    IN      CNAME           mx1.example.com.
    
    ; TXT records
    @       300    IN      TXT             "v=spf1 a mx ?all"
    

    Verify the global configuration

    Run the named-checkconf command on both servers. If you get any errors you should fix them before proceeding.

    Verify the zone configuration

    Run the following command on the master server:

    named-checkzone theo-andreou.org /etc/bind/db.example.com 
    zone example.com/IN: loaded serial 2016121201
    OK
    

    If you get ‘OK’ then your setup is correct, otherwise you should fix it before proceeding.

    Restart bind and test your servers

    systemctl restart bind9.service
    

    Now test if your servers resolve your records.

    The master:

    dig smtp.example.com @1.1.1.1
    ...
    ;; ANSWER SECTION:
    smtp.example.com.   300 IN  CNAME   mx1.example.com.
    mx1.example.com.    300 IN  A   4.4.4.4
    ...
    

    The slave:

    dig smtp.example.com @2.2.2.2
    ...
    ;; ANSWER SECTION:
    smtp.example.com.   300 IN  CNAME   mx1.example.com.
    mx1.example.com.    300 IN  A   4.4.4.4
    ...
    

    If you get any errors you can check your syslog file (/var/log/syslog).

    Finalizing

    After you have tested that everything is OK, it is time to tell your registrar about the new servers. This is called setting the glue records and you should consult the documentation of your registrar on how to do that. Ask support if you have any trouble.

    References

    • https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-configure-bind-as-an-authoritative-only-dns-server-on-ubuntu-14-04

    In this guide we will show how you can remotely decrypt a headless Debian or Ubuntu Linux system, that has been encrypted with LUKS.

    Prerequisites

    • A LUKS encrypted Debian jessie or Ubuntu xenial system
    • Keyboard and monitor for the initial system setup
    • Allow SSH root access on the decrypted system using public key authentication
    • Use a different port for ssh (assuming port 4422) on the decrypted system

      NOTE: using a different port than the standard SSH port (22) serves a double purpose. For once, you will not received the scary WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED! message every time you will try to remotely unlock the system and as an additional bonus you will get less SSH attacks on the active system.

    Installing dropbear

    Dropbear is a lightweight SSH server especially suitable for initial ramdisk (initrd) environments and other lightweight systems.

    Install dropbear:

    # apt -y install dropbear
    

    Setup public key authentication for dropbear

    Create the homedir for the root user and the SSH configuration directory:

    # mkdir -p /etc/initramfs-tools/root/.ssh
    

    Append your client SSH pubkey to authorized_keys:

    # cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh -p 4422 root@encrypted-system "cat >> /etc/initramfs-tools/root/.ssh/authorized_keys"
    

    Setup a static IP for the unlock environment

    This step is optional but highly recommended if you are setting up a static, permanent service. If you skip this step DHCP will kick in, provided you have a DHCP Server in your environment.

    Run this command to update the /etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf configuration file:

    echo IP=10.0.0.67::10.0.0.1:255.255.255.0:encrypted-system:eth0:off >> /etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf
    

    Explanation of the different fields:
    [host_ip]::[gateway_ip]:[netmask]:[hostname]:[device]:[autoconf]

    NOTE: there are two successive colons (::) after the host_ip.

    Setup the unlock script

    Copy the following text in /etc/initramfs-tools/hooks/crypt_unlock.sh:

    #!/bin/sh
    #
    # By Stinky Parkia
    # https://stinkyparkia.wordpress.com/2014/10/14/remote-unlocking-luks-encrypted-lvm-using-dropbear-ssh-in-ubuntu-server-14-04-1-with-static-ipst/
    
    PREREQ="dropbear"
    
    prereqs() {
        echo "$PREREQ"
    }
    
    case "$1" in
        prereqs)
        prereqs
        exit 0
        ;;
    esac
    
    . "${CONFDIR}/initramfs.conf"
    . /usr/share/initramfs-tools/hook-functions
    
    if [ "${DROPBEAR}" != "n" ] && [ -r "/etc/crypttab" ] ; then
        cat > "${DESTDIR}/bin/unlock" < < EOF
    #!/bin/sh
    if PATH=/lib/unlock:/bin:/sbin /scripts/local-top/cryptroot; then
        kill \`ps | grep cryptroot | grep -v "grep" | awk '{print \$1}'\`
        # following line kill the remote shell right after the passphrase has
        # been entered.
        kill -9 \`ps | grep "\-sh" | grep -v "grep" | awk '{print \$1}'\`
        exit 0
    fi
    exit 1
    EOF
    
        chmod 755 "${DESTDIR}/bin/unlock"
    
        mkdir -p "${DESTDIR}/lib/unlock"
        cat > "${DESTDIR}/lib/unlock/plymouth" < < EOF
    #!/bin/sh
    [ "\$1" == "--ping" ] && exit 1
    /bin/plymouth "\$@"
    EOF
    
        chmod 755 "${DESTDIR}/lib/unlock/plymouth"
    
        echo To unlock root-partition run "unlock" >> ${DESTDIR}/etc/motd
    fi
    

    Make the script executable:

    # chmod +x /etc/initramfs-tools/hooks/crypt_unlock.sh
    

    Apply the configuration

    Apply the changes in the initial ramdisk:

    # update-initramfs -u
    

    Reboot the system:

    # reboot
    

    Remotely unlock the system

    From your client, SSH into the initial ramdisk:

    ssh root@encrypted-system 
    

    If everything is correct you will be greeted by this MOTD:

    To unlock root-partition run unlock
    
    
    BusyBox v1.22.1 (Ubuntu 1:1.22.0-15ubuntu1) built-in shell (ash)
    Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.
    

    Unlock the system and boot into it:

    # unlock
    Please unlock disk sda3_crypt: 
    

    You will get the following message and you will exit the remote shell if successful:

    cryptsetup: sda3_crypt set up successfully
    Connection to 10.0.0.67 closed.
    

    You can now login to the active Linux system using the alternative port 4422:

    ssh -p 4422 root@encrypted-system
    

    If you can login successfully to your system you can remove the keyboard and monitor and hide your system somewhere where the Sun does not shine :).

    Thanks to Stinky Parkia for the excellent guide and the brilliant unlock script.

    References

    • https://stinkyparkia.wordpress.com/2014/10/14/remote-unlocking-luks-encrypted-lvm-using-dropbear-ssh-in-ubuntu-server-14-04-1-with-static-ipst/

    This guide is about setting up a Postfix/Dovecot system using LDAP/Fusiondirectoory as a backend.

    Prerequisites

    • Install an LDAP/Fusiondirectory infrastructure
    • A DNS A Record:
      mail.example.com. 300 IN A 4.5.6.7
    • A DNS PTR Record:
      7.6.5.4.in-addr.arpa. 300 IN PTR mail.example.com.
    • A DNS MX Record (Actually more than one):
      example.com. 300 IN MX 5 mail.example.com.

    Install FusionDirectory Plugins

    • Install the Mail plugin:
      apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-mail fusiondirectory-plugin-mail-schema
      fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/mail-fd.schema
      fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/mail-fd-conf.schema
      
    • Install the Alias plugin:
      apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-alias fusiondirectory-plugin-alias-schema
      fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/alias-fd-conf.schema
      fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/alias-fd.schema
      
    • Install the Postfix plugin:
      apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-postfix fusiondirectory-plugin-postfix-schema
      fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/postfix-fd.schema
      

    Setup mail services:

    • Enter the mail.example.com server configuration (Systems plugin)
    • From the ‘Services’ tab create a ‘Postfix (SMTP)’ and an ‘IMAP/POP3 generic’ service

    • Add mail capability to all normal users:

      • Click the ‘Mail’ tab of a user and then press ‘Add Mail settings’
    • Fill in the ‘Primary Address. field and select mail.example.com as the server.

  • Add All necessary distribution lists and redirections from ‘Aliases’

  • Setup postfix

    • Create a service account for postfix using the ‘DSA’ plugin in *FusionDirectory’. It should look like this:

      dn: cn=postfix,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
      cn: postfix
      userPassword:: yeduyt2732tet87eoiewoi32t4873t4387f7gf47gf49i6=
      structuralObjectClass: organizationalRole
      entryUUID: 280427ce-9a54-1035-8e48-bf1fd814366b
      creatorsName: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
      createTimestamp: 20160419082627Z
      objectClass: organizationalRole
      objectClass: top
      objectClass: simpleSecurityObject
      entryCSN: 20160419082628.006263Z#000000#000#000000
      modifiersName: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
      modifyTimestamp: 20160419082628Z
      

    • Install postfix:
      apt -y install postfix postfix-pcre postfix-ldap
      

      When you are prompted about “General type of mail configuration:” select “No configuration”

    • Prepare the /etc/postfix/main.cf file:

    smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name
    biff = no
    append_dot_mydomain = no
    readme_directory = no
    smtpd_tls_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/mail.example.com.crt
    smtpd_tls_key_file=/etc/ssl/private/mail.example.com.key
    smtpd_use_tls=yes
    smtpd_tls_security_level = may
    smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
    smtpd_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtpd_scache
    smtp_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtp_scache
    smtpd_tls_dh512_param_file = ${config_directory}/certs/dh_512.pem
    smtpd_tls_dh1024_param_file = ${config_directory}/certs/dh_1024.pem
    tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
    smtpd_tls_loglevel = 0
    smtpd_client_new_tls_session_rate_limit = 10
    smtpd_tls_exclude_ciphers =
        EXP
        EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA
        ADH-DES-CBC-SHA
        DES-CBC-SHA
        SEED-SHA
        aNULL
        eNULL
        EXPORT
        DES
        RC4
        MD5
        PSK
        aECDH
        EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA
        KRB5-DES-CBC3-SHA
    myhostname = mail.example.com
    alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
    alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases
    myorigin = /etc/mailname
    mydestination = $myhostname, mail.example.com, localhost.localdomain, localhost
    relayhost =
    mynetworks = 127.0.0.0/8 [::ffff:127.0.0.0]/104 [::1]/128 10.10.10.0/24
    mailbox_size_limit = 0
    recipient_delimiter = +
    inet_interfaces = all
    inet_protocols = all
    local_transport = local
    postscreen_greet_action = enforce
    smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
        reject
        permit_mynetworks
        permit_sasl_authenticated
        warn_if_reject reject_non_fqdn_hostname
        warn_if_reject reject_non_fqdn_sender
        reject_invalid_hostname
        reject_unknown_sender_domain
        reject_unverified_recipient
        reject_unauth_destination
        reject_non_fqdn_sender
        reject_non_fqdn_recipient
        reject_non_fqdn_helo_hostname
        check_sender_ns_access cidr:/etc/postfix/drop.cidr
        check_sender_mx_access cidr:/etc/postfix/drop.cidr
        reject_rbl_client bl.spamcop.net,
        reject_rbl_client cbl.abuseat.org
        reject
    smtpd_data_restrictions = reject_multi_recipient_bounce
    smtpd_sender_restrictions =
        reject_non_fqdn_sender
        reject_unknown_sender_domain
    smtpd_helo_restrictions =
        permit_mynetworks
        check_helo_access pcre:/etc/postfix/identitycheck.pcre
        reject_invalid_helo_hostname
    disable_vrfy_command = yes
    smtpd_helo_required = yes
    smtpd_delay_reject = no
    smtpd_client_restrictions = check_client_access cidr:/etc/postfix/drop.cidr
    message_size_limit = 51200000
    
    • Prepare the rest of the configuration files:

      • Prepare the virtual domains file:
        cat > /etc/postfix/virtual_domains < < EOF
         # Domain                Anything
        
        example.com            OK
        EOF
        
      • Prepare the virtual recipients file:
        cat > /etc/postfix/ldap_virtual_recipients.cf < < EOF
        bind = yes
        bind_dn = cn=postfix,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
        bind_pw = NotTheRealPassword
        server_host = ldap://ldap.example.com:389
        search_base = ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
        domain = example.com
        query_filter = (mail=%s)
        result_attribute = mail
        start_tls = yes
        version = 3
        EOF
        
      • Prepare the virtual aliases file:
        cat > /etc/postfix/ldap_virtual_aliases.cf < < EOF
        bind = yes
        bind_dn = cn=postfix,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
        bind_pw = NotTheRealPass
        server_host = ldap://ldap.example.com:389
        search_base = ou=alias,dc=example,dc=com
        domain = example.com
        query_filter = (mail=%s)
        result_attribute = gosaMailAlternateAddress, gosaMailForwardingAddress
        start_tls = yes
        version = 3
        EOF
        
      • Prepare the identity check file:
        cat > /etc/postfix/identitycheck.pcre < < EOF
        # Identity (RegEx)              Action
        
        /^(mail\.example\.com)$/       REJECT Hostname Abuse: $1
        /^(1\.2\.3\.4)$/                REJECT Hostname Abuse: $1
        /^(\[1\.2\.3\.4\])$/            REJECT Hostname Abuse: $1
        EOF
        
      • Prepare the blacklist file:
        cat > /etc/postfix/drop.cidr < < EOF
        # IP/CIDR                       Action
        
        1.2.3.0/24                      REJECT Blacklisted
        EOF
        
    • Generate the virtual domains hashmap:
      postmap hash:/etc/postfix/virtual_domains
      
    • Start postfix:
      systemctl start postfix
      

      Verify:

      <

      pre>
      ss -lnptu | grep master
      tcp LISTEN 0 100 :25 *: users ((“master”,pid=15539,fd=12))

    • Enable support for smtps (port 465) and submission (port 587):

      Uncomment the following lines from /etc/postfix/master.cf:

      submission inet n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
      smtps     inet  n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
      

      Restart postfix:

      systemctl restart postfix
      

      Verify:

      ss -lnptu | grep master
      tcp    LISTEN     0      100    *:587     *:*      users:(("master",pid=15854,fd=16))
      tcp    LISTEN     0      100    *:465     *:*      users:(("master",pid=15854,fd=19))
      tcp    LISTEN     0      100    *:25      *:*      users:(("master",pid=15854,fd=12))
      

    • Take precautions for perfect forward secrecy:
      mkdir /etc/postfix/certs
      cd /etc/postfix/certs
      openssl dhparam -2 -out dh_512.pem 512
      openssl dhparam -2 -out dh_1024.pem 1024
      chmod 600 dh_*
      
    • Lookup test:
      postmap -q theo@example.com ldap:/etc/postfix/ldap_virtual_recipients.cf
      theo@example.com
      
    • Open SMTP, SMTPS ans Submission ports:
      ufw allow 25/tcp
      ufw allow 465/tcp
      ufw allow 587/tcp
      

    Install and configure dovecot

    • Create the user that will handle mail delivery:

    • Create a service account for dovecot using the ‘DSA’ plugin in *FusionDirectory’. It should look like this:
      dn: cn=dovecot,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
      cn: dovecot
      userPassword:: ljsdewd98dej932j98dxjud8x3jx9843xj8943j438439e3=
      structuralObjectClass: organizationalRole
      entryUUID: 4d0d7174-9a54-1035-8e49-bf1fd814366b
      creatorsName: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
      createTimestamp: 20160419082730Z
      objectClass: organizationalRole
      objectClass: top
      objectClass: simpleSecurityObject
      entryCSN: 20160419082730.138012Z#000000#000#000000
      modifiersName: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
      modifyTimestamp: 20160419082730Z
      
    • Install dovecot:
      apt -y install dovecot-core dovecot-imapd dovecot-pop3d dovecot-lmtpd dovecot-ldap
      
    • Make the following changes in /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-ssl.conf:
      ssl = required
      ssl_cert = 
      

      service imap-login {
      inet_listener imap {
      port = 143
      }
      inet_listener imaps {
      port = 993
      ssl = yes
      }
      }

      service pop3-login {
      inet_listener pop3 {
      port = 110
      }
      inet_listener pop3s {
      port = 995
      ssl = yes
      }
      }

      service auth {
      unix_listener auth-userdb {
      mode = 0777
      user = dovecot
      group = dovecot
      }
      }

    • Add the vmail user in the system:

      addgroup --system --gid 5000 vmail
      adduser --system --home /srv/vmail --uid 5000 --gid 5000 --disabled-password --disabled-login vmail
      

    • Restart dovecot:
      systemctl restart dovecot
      

      Verify:

      netstat -lnptu | grep dovecot
      tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:993             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
      tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:995             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
      tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:110             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
      tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:143             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
      tcp6       0      0 :::993                  :::*                    LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
      tcp6       0      0 :::995                  :::*                    LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
      tcp6       0      0 :::110                  :::*                    LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
      tcp6       0      0 :::143                  :::*                    LISTEN      20894/dovecot  
      
    • Check if you can login:
      openssl s_client -connect localhost:993
      <output ommitted...>
      * OK [CAPABILITY IMAP4rev1 LITERAL+ SASL-IR LOGIN-REFERRALS ID ENABLE IDLE AUTH=PLAIN AUTH=LOGIN] Dovecot ready.
      a1 LOGIN theo MyNotSoSecretPass
      a1 OK [CAPABILITY IMAP4rev1 LITERAL+ SASL-IR LOGIN-REFERRALS ID ENABLE IDLE SORT SORT=DISPLAY THREAD=REFERENCES THREAD=REFS THREAD=ORDEREDSUBJECT MULTIAPPEND URL-PARTIAL CATENATE UNSELECT CHILDREN NAMESPACE UIDPLUS LIST-EXTENDED I18NLEVEL=1 CONDSTORE QRESYNC ESEARCH ESORT SEARCHRES WITHIN CONTEXT=SEARCH LIST-STATUS SPECIAL-USE BINARY MOVE] Logged in
      a3 LOGOUT
      * BYE Logging out
      a2 OK Logout completed.
      closed
      
    • Enable IMAP, IMAPS, POP3 and POP3S ports:
      ufw allow 110/tcp
      ufw allow 143/tcp
      ufw allow 993/tcp
      ufw allow 995/tcp
      
    • Tell postfix to deliver mail using dovecot:
      • Add the following lines at the end of /etc/postfix/master.cf:
        dovecot   unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
          flags=ODRhu user=vmail:vmail argv=/usr/lib/dovecot/deliver -e -f ${sender} -d ${recipient}
        
      • Add these attributes in /etc/postfix/main.cf:
        virtual_transport = dovecot
        dovecot_destination_recipient_limit = 1
        
    • Restart postfix and dovecot:
      systemctl restart postfix dovecot
      

    Install SASL for SMTP AUTH

    • Create a service account for saslauthd using the ‘DSA’ plugin in *FusionDirectory’. It should look like this:
      dn: cn=saslauthd,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
      cn: saslauthd
      userPassword:: ejdoedoifj9ewufd9843e9ejfd98je938jcr9843843=
      structuralObjectClass: organizationalRole
      entryUUID: 61143234-9a54-1035-8e4a-bf1fd814366b
      creatorsName: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
      createTimestamp: 20160419082803Z
      objectClass: organizationalRole
      objectClass: top
      objectClass: simpleSecurityObject
      entryCSN: 20160419082803.738357Z#000000#000#000000
      modifiersName: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
      modifyTimestamp: 20160419082803Z
      
    • Install SASL:
      apt -y install libsasl2-2 sasl2-bin
      
    • Create the /etc/postfix/sasl/smtpd.conf file:
      cat > /etc/postfix/sasl/smtpd.conf < < EOF
      log_level: 3
      pwcheck_method: saslauthd
      mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
      EOF
      
    • Make the following changes in /etc/default/saslauthd:
      START=yes
      MECHANISMS="ldap"
      OPTIONS="-c -m /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd"
      
    • Create the /etc/saslauthd.conf file:
      cat > /etc/saslauthd.conf < < EOF
      ldap_servers: ldap://ldap.example.com/
      ldap_bind_dn: cn=saslauthd,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
      ldap_bind_pw: MySecretPass
      ldap_timeout: 10
      ldap_time_limit: 10
      ldap_scope: sub
      ldap_search_base: ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
      ldap_auth_method: bind
      ldap_filter: (&(uid=%u)(mail=*))
      ldap_debug: 0
      ldap_verbose: off
      ldap_ssl: yes
      ldap_starttls: no
      ldap_referrals: yes
      EOF
      
    • Add the postfix user in the sasl group:
      usermod -aG sasl postfix
      
    • Add these attributes in /etc/postfix/main.cf:
      smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
      broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
      
    • Restart saslauthd and postfix:
      systemctl restart saslauthd postfix
      
    • Test message delivery using SMTP AUTH:

      First you need to install swaks:

      apt -y install swaks
      

      Then use swaks to test message delivery:

      swaks --from noreply@example.com --to theo@example.com --server 127.0.0.1:25 --tls --auth plain --auth-user=theo
      
    • Test if the message has been delivered to inbox:

      First you need to install mutt:

      apt -y install mutt
      

      Then use mutt to test if the message has been delivered to inbox:

      mutt -f /srv/vmail/theo@example.com/Maildir/
      

      NOTE: When you are asked to create a ‘mail’ folder just say ‘no’.

    References

    • https://documentation.fusiondirectory.org/en/documentation/plugin/mail_plugin
    • https://documentation.fusiondirectory.org/en/documentation/plugin/alias_plugin
    • https://documentation.fusiondirectory.org/en/documentation/plugin/dovecot_plugin

    LDAP/Fusiondirectory setup

    In this guide we will be setting up LDAP (openldap) along with the FusionDirectory web management tool.

    Preparations

    • Install Debian jessie (Ubuntu 16.04 should work too) on your server or VM
    • Setup the DNS records in your DNS servers:

      ldap.example.com.           3599    IN      A       1.1.1.1
      

      NOTE: replace 1.1.1.1 with you actual internal or external IP

    • Allow ssh and web services on firewall:

      apt -y install ufw
      ufw allow 22/tcp
      ufw allow 80/tcp
      ufw allow 443/tcp
      ufw enable
      

      NOTE: It may be a good idea to change the default ssh port from 22 to something less predictable

    Setup LDAP

    • Setup ldap.example.com in /etc/hosts:

      127.0.2.1 ldap.example.com ldap
      

    • Install OpenLDAP and FusionDirectory
      apt -y install slapd
      

      Enter and verify the administrator password for slapd.

    • Create An Internal Certificate Authority for Example LTD:

      • First install gnutls-bin:
        apt -y install gnutls-bin
        
      • Create the key for the internal CA for example.com:
        certtool --generate-privkey --outfile example.com-rootCA.key
        
      • Create a certificate for our internal CA:
    certtool --generate-self-signed --load-privkey example.com-rootCA.key --outfile example.com-rootCA.crt
    Generating a self signed certificate...
    Please enter the details of the certificate's distinguished name. Just press enter to ignore a field.
    Common name: Example LTD Internal ROOT CA
    UID: 
    Organizational unit name: IT
    Organization name: Example LTD
    Locality name: Limassol
    State or province name: Limassol
    Country name (2 chars): CY
    Enter the subject's domain component (DC): 
    This field should not be used in new certificates.
    E-mail: admins@example.com
    Enter the certificate's serial number in decimal (default: 6295758616856773074): 
    The certificate will expire in (days): 7300

    Activation/Expiration time. The certificate will expire in (days): 7300

    Extensions. Does the certificate belong to an authority? (y/N): y Path length constraint (decimal, -1 for no constraint): -1 Is this a TLS web client certificate? (y/N): Will the certificate be used for IPsec IKE operations? (y/N): Is this a TLS web server certificate? (y/N): Enter a dnsName of the subject of the certificate: Enter a URI of the subject of the certificate: Enter the IP address of the subject of the certificate: Enter the e-mail of the subject of the certificate: Will the certificate be used to sign other certificates? (y/N): y Will the certificate be used to sign CRLs? (y/N): Will the certificate be used to sign code? (y/N): Will the certificate be used to sign OCSP requests? (y/N): Will the certificate be used for time stamping? (y/N): Enter the URI of the CRL distribution point: X.509 Certificate Information: Version: 3 Serial Number (hex): 575f071b0d5a41d2 Validity: Not Before: Mon Jun 13 19:19:27 UTC 2016 Not After: Sun Jun 08 19:20:00 UTC 2036 Subject: CN=Example LTD Internal ROOT CA,OU=IT,O=Example LTD,L=Limassol,ST=Limassol,C=CY,EMAIL=admins@example.com Subject Public Key Algorithm: RSA Algorithm Security Level: Medium (2048 bits) Modulus (bits 2048): 00:c0:75:c8:02:05:d0:0c:67:af:ac:0c:80:53:bf:cd a3:80:76:cf:3e:14:19:99:5c:24:b4:fc:b0:42:8d:5a 03:5d:04:a5:85:c7:fe:e3:d4:30:6c:4c:26:90:76:c5 3e:a0:dc:a7:53:a7:eb:13:60:78:44:b3:0a:b2:77:0c 46:19:96:ea:d2:46:82:9c:11:2c:a5:e2:a1:57:38:f4 8e:4d:74:4f:f9:41:dd:11:f4:c2:f5:9f:b7:9a:93:7d a7:f8:f3:dd:2e:08:6a:25:75:79:f3:63:e5:09:1f:bd 6a:38:45:85:f0:63:54:c0:08:68:41:15:66:a4:e3:84 49:7e:e5:c5:c7:6c:d3:c7:be:d5:5a:df:1a:1d:55:f8 35:73:bb:e3:ea:f7:66:af:d9:09:72:ca:17:5f:80:09 99:6a:49:e3:8b:f2:72:56:ac:f8:ba:60:49:d5:80:2a 07:e6:17:88:86:e4:3c:89:cd:af:2b:66:a1:af:53:f4 66:21:30:a3:22:af:a9:11:6e:98:e0:f7:6d:ef:8a:32 e9:0b:a4:82:7b:7b:db:2d:90:8e:bd:e4:54:04:a4:52 e8:cf:f6:2e:9b:97:46:ab:cb:38:06:23:33:db:42:0c 25:41:5a:d7:02:15:07:c6:e8:86:0b:a6:d7:7d:81:16 bd Exponent (bits 24): 01:00:01 Extensions: Basic Constraints (critical): Certificate Authority (CA): TRUE Key Purpose (not critical): Time stamping. Key Usage (critical): Certificate signing. Subject Key Identifier (not critical): 7a596f6dea4080e89c9e78a698d7126cd63dafa7 Other Information: Public Key ID: 7a596f6dea4080e89c9e78a698d7126cd63dafa7 Public key's random art: +--[ RSA 2048]----+ | | | . . | | . . . | | o . . | | . .+. S o | | =o..o. + . . | | o.o= .oo . o o | | oo+. .o o o | |o... E+ .o | +-----------------+

    Is the above information ok? (y/N): y

    Signing certificate...
    • Add the Example LTD Internal ROOT CA as trusted in ca-certificates:

      mkdir /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra
      cp example.com-rootCA.crt /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra
      dpkg-reconfigure ca-certificates
      

      Add the extra/example.com-rootCA.crt CA as a trusted CA.

  • Configure slapd:

    dpkg-reconfigure slapd
    
    • Omit OpenLDAP server configuration? No
    • DNS domain name: example.com
    • Organization name: Example LTD
    • Administrator password: ***************
    • Verify password: *************
    • Database backend to use: MDB
    • Do you want the database to be removed when slapd is purged? No
    • Move old database? Yes
    • Allow LDAPv2 protocol? No
  • Configure TLS on LDAP:
    • Create a key for ldap.example.com:
      certtool --generate-privkey --outfile ldap.example.com.key
      Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key...
      
    • Create a certificate for ldap.example.com:
      certtool --generate-certificate --load-privkey ldap.example.com.key --outfile ldap.example.com.crt --load-ca-certificate example.com-rootCA.crt --load-ca-privkey example.com-rootCA.key
      Generating a signed certificate...
      Please enter the details of the certificate's distinguished name. Just press enter to ignore a field.
      Common name: ldap.example.com
      UID: 
      Organizational unit name: IT
      Organization name: Example LTD
      Locality name: Limassol
      State or province name: Limassol
      Country name (2 chars): CY
      Enter the subject's domain component (DC): 
      This field should not be used in new certificates.
      E-mail: admins@example.com
      Enter the certificate's serial number in decimal (default: 6295762607454361711):

      Activation/Expiration time. The certificate will expire in (days):
      3650

      Extensions. Does the certificate belong to an authority? (y/N): Is this a TLS web client certificate? (y/N): Will the certificate be used for IPsec IKE operations? (y/N): Is this a TLS web server certificate? (y/N): Enter a dnsName of the subject of the certificate: Enter a URI of the subject of the certificate: Enter the IP address of the subject of the certificate: Enter the e-mail of the subject of the certificate: Will the certificate be used for signing (required for TLS)? (Y/n): Will the certificate be used for encryption (not required for TLS)? (Y/n): X.509 Certificate Information: Version: 3 Serial Number (hex): 575f0abc2f81186f Validity: Not Before: Mon Jun 13 19:35:45 UTC 2016 Not After: Thu Jun 11 19:36:29 UTC 2026 Subject: CN=ldap.example.com,OU=IT,O=Example LTD,L=Limassol,ST=Limassol,C=CY,EMAIL=admins@example.com Subject Public Key Algorithm: RSA Algorithm Security Level: Medium (2048 bits) Modulus (bits 2048): 00:d0:15:8e:02:90:5f:4a:9f:90:ea:1e:35:e6:4b:eb a9:8c:e5:bf:68:ec:83:0e:49:5b:d1:f0:08:4b:ac:b0 31:d2:e0:a7:eb:18:d3:ee:b8:38:b7:c4:0a:cc:97:cc b6:ac:2d:29:c8:a8:c4:7c:cc:f1:36:5a:e9:6b:52:f5 1e:e5:4f:90:67:34:1f:8c:a8:17:72:ee:40:87:ba:ae 8b:f8:4f:f8:be:51:ee:ea:d5:e4:17:63:79:22:41:c0 19:43:33:55:bb:46:80:5c:b8:16:18:fa:fb:17:58:c2 ed:d2:14:10:3b:57:5d:de:7f:29:ab:66:c2:81:87:05 f7:b7:27:78:a9:c0:8e:4f:1c:3f:66:6f:dd:43:26:9f 84:59:fb:c7:21:3c:62:4f:8d:4a:25:ab:7e:f0:5f:7e df:97:f7:79:f8:c7:2d:c8:5a:7a:de:ea:5b:c7:bd:e9 12:17:56:d3:47:ff:eb:fa:b5:6f:d9:56:8f:c7:e8:7a 46:92:75:cc:ff:de:0e:88:49:7d:d7:dd:6e:8d:3f:57 fa:0a:7a:3b:80:ec:0e:10:dd:70:d5:9a:8d:91:ce:72 44:06:21:d2:9d:e9:b8:91:13:68:4c:fc:e2:bb:4d:a8 97:ed:e9:a4:98:5d:e7:c0:ef:3e:9d:30:28:de:bd:10 01 Exponent (bits 24): 01:00:01 Extensions: Basic Constraints (critical): Certificate Authority (CA): FALSE Key Usage (critical): Digital signature. Key encipherment. Subject Key Identifier (not critical): 6d8a173de01efa11a892dda76ccd7abc609a2707 Authority Key Identifier (not critical): 7a596f6dea408aa89c9e78a698d7126cd63dafa7 Other Information: Public Key ID: 6d8a173de01efa00a892dda67ccd7abc609a2707 Public key's random art: +--[ RSA 2048]----+ | | | | | . | | . + | | A = | | +Y= . | | oo+kk+ | | iii==o* | | .=B**o. | +-----------------+

      Is the above information ok? (y/N): y

      Signing certificate...
    • Enable LDAPS in /etc/default/slapd:
      SLAPD_SERVICES="ldap:/// ldapi:/// ldaps:///"
      
    • Copy the ldap.example.com certficate and apply permissions
      mkdir /etc/ldap/ssl
      cp ldap.example.com.crt /etc/ldap/ssl
      cp ldap.example.com.key /etc/ldap/ssl
      chown -R openldap:openldap /etc/ldap/ssl    /
      
    • Create an olcSSL.ldif file:

      “`
      mkdir /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/
      cd /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/<br />
      cat > olcSSL.ldif < < EOF
      dn: cn=config
      changetype: modify
      add: olcTLSCACertificateFile</p></li>
      </ul></li>
      </ul>

      <h2>olcTLSCACertificateFile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt</h2>

      <p>add: olcTLSCertificateKeyFile

      <h2>olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.key</h2>

      add: olcTLSCertificateFile
      olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.crt
      EOF
      “`

      * Import the TLS configuration:
      
          ```
      

      ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f olcSSL.ldif
      “`

          Verify with:
      
          </pre><pre>
      

      slapcat -n0 | grep -i tls
      olcTLSCACertificateFile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
      olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.crt
      olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.key

      * Restart and verify *slapd*:
      
          <pre>
      

      systemctl restart slapd
      netstat -lnptu | grep slapd
      tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:636 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 27665/slapd
      tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:389 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 27665/slapd
      tcp6 0 0 :::636 :::* LISTEN 27665/slapd
      tcp6 0 0 :::389 :::* LISTEN 27665/slapd

      Setup Apache

      • Install Apache with PHP:
        apt -y install apache2 libapache2-mod-php5 php5-ldap php5-mcrypt php5-intl php-pear
        

      Setup Let’s Encrypt:

      NOTE: this step is only necessary if you have a public facing ldap.example.com service

      • Setup Debian jessie backports:

        “`
        cat >> /etc/apt/sources.list < < EOF</p></li>
        </ul>

        <h1>jessie backports</h1>

        <p>deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main
        deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main
        EOF
        “`

        • Run apt update
        • Install Let’s Encrypt utility, certbot:

          apt -y install python-certbot-apache -t jessie-backports
          

        • Generate a certificate for all the domain ldap.example.com:
          certbot run -d ldap.example.com
          

          In the TUI add the admins@example.com email and agree to the ToS. Use 000-default.conf for now.

        • Download and trust all Let’s Encrypt Root and Intermediate CA certificates:

          wget https://letsencrypt.org/certs/isrgrootx1.pem
          for i in {1..4}; do wget https://letsencrypt.org/certs/lets-encrypt-x$i-cross-signed.pem; done
          cp *.pem /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra/
          for f in *.pem; do cp -- "$f" "/usr/share/ca-certificates/extra/${f%.pem}.crt"; done
          dpkg-reconfigure ca-certificates # Select all the newlly added CA certs
          

        Setup FusionDirectory

        • Setup Fusiondirectory Repo:
          gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-key 62B4981F 
          gpg --export -a "Fusiondirectory Archive Manager <contact@fusiondirectory.org>" > FD-archive-key
          apt-key add FD-archive-key
          echo '# fusiondirectory repository' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/fusiondirectory.list
          echo 'deb http://repos.fusiondirectory.org/debian-jessie jessie main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/fusiondirectory.list
          echo 'deb-src http://repos.fusiondirectory.org/debian-jessie jessie main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/fusiondirectory.list
          apt update
          
        • Install FusionDirectory:
          apt -y install fusiondirectory fusiondirectory-schema
          
        • Insert core FusionDirectory schemas into *slapd
          fusiondirectory-insert-schema
          

          Verify:

          fusiondirectory-insert-schema -l
          core
          cosine
          nis
          inetorgperson
          samba
          core-fd
          core-fd-conf
          ldapns
          recovery-fd
          
        • Create a Fusiondirectory Apache vhost (/etc/apache2/sites-available/ldap.example.com.conf):
          <virtualhost *:80>
              ServerName ldap.example.com
              Redirect "/" "https://ldap.example.com/"
              ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-error.log
              CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-access.log combined
          </virtualhost>
          <ifmodule mod_ssl.c>
              <virtualhost *:443>
                      ServerName ldap.example.com
                      ServerAdmin webmaster@example.com
                      DocumentRoot /usr/share/fusiondirectory/html
                      ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-error.log
                      CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-access.log combined
                      SSLEngine on
                      SSLCertificateFile      /etc/letsencrypt/live/ldap.example.com/cert.pem
                      SSLCertificateKeyFile   /etc/letsencrypt/live/ldap.example.com/privkey.pem
                      <filesmatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
                                      SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
                      </filesmatch>
                      <directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
                                      SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
                      </directory>
                      BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \
                                      nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
                                      downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
                      BrowserMatch "MSIE [17-9]" ssl-unclean-shutdown
                      <ifmodule mod_php5.c>
                      <location></location>
                          php_admin_flag engine on
                          php_admin_flag register_globals off
                          php_admin_flag allow_call_time_pass_reference off
                          php_admin_flag expose_php off
                          php_admin_flag zend.ze1_compatibility_mode off
                          php_admin_flag register_long_arrays off
                          php_admin_value upload_tmp_dir /var/spool/fusiondirectory/
                          php_admin_value session.cookie_lifetime 0
                          #Include /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.secrets
          
                      </ifmodule>
                      <directory /usr/share/fusiondirectory/html></directory>
                          Order Allow,Deny
                          # Insert your public IPs here
                          Allow from 2.2.2.2
                          Allow from 2.2.2.3
          
              </virtualhost>
          </ifmodule>
          
        • Enable mod_ssl, ldap.example.com and disable 000-default and default-ssl:
          a2enmod ssl
          a2ensite ldap.example.com
          a2dissite default-ssl
          a2dissite 000-default
          systemctl restart apache2
          
        • Setup FusionDirectory:
          • Install optional prerequisities:
            apt -y install php-mdb2
            
          • Point your Browser to:
            https://ldap.example.com/
            
          • Create a temporary token for the setup (taken from the first setup webpage):
            echo -n r9l1srnu0rvdeca4k826nq4e05 > /var/cache/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.auth 
            

            Click ‘Next’

          • In the ‘Language setup’ select ‘English’ and press ‘Next’.

          • If everything is ‘OK'(Green) on the ‘Installation check’ click ‘Next’

          • On the ‘LDAP connection setup’:

            • Location name: default
            • Connection URI: ldap://ldap.example.com:389
            • TLS connection: Yes
            • Admin DN: cn=admin(,dc=example,dc=com)
            • Admin password: *************************
            • LDAP schema check:
              • Enable schema validation when logging in: Yes
          • Keep defaults in ‘Look and feel’ except ‘Timezone’:
            • Timezone: America/Los_Angeles
          • Keep all the defaults in ‘Password settings’ except this:
            • Password minimum length: 8
          • In the ‘SSL’ field use these:
            • Key path: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.key
            • Certificate path: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.crt
            • CA certificate path: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt

            Click ‘Next’ when done.

          • In the ‘LDAP inspection’ page:

            • Press ‘Migrate’ (twice) in the ‘Inspecting object classes in root object’ option
          • Press ‘Create’ in the ‘Checking for super administrator’ option’, fill the fields, and ‘Apply’ when done:

            • User ID: ldapadmin
            • Password: ***************
            • Password (again): ***************
          • In the ‘Checking for default ACL roles and groups’ field, press ‘Migrate’
        • From the ‘Finish – write the configuration file’, download the configuration file on your PC

        • Copy the configuration file from your PC to ldap.example.com:

          scp fusiondirectory.conf root@ldap.example.com:/etc/fusiondirectory
          

        • Apply the correct permissions to the /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf file:
          fusiondirectory-setup --check-config
          Checking FusionDirectory's config file
          /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf exists…
          /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf is not set properly, do you want to fix it ?:  [Yes/No]?
          y
          
        • Click ‘Next’ when done.
      • Use encrypted passwords in fusiondirectory.conf:

        • Enable the headers module in Apache:
          a2enmod headers
          systemctl restart apache2
          
        • Encrypt passwords in fusiondirectory.conf:
          fusiondirectory-setup --encrypt-passwords
          
        • Uncomment the following line in /etc/apache2/sites-available/ldap.example.com.conf:
          Include /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.secrets
          
        • Restart Apache:
          systemctl restart apache2
          
        • If everything works as expected remove /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf.orig
          rm /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf.orig
          
      • Allow ‘.’ (dot) in usernames:
        • After everything is set, login as ldapadmin
        • Go to ‘Configuration’
        • Press the ‘Edit’ button at the bottom of the page
        • Un-tick the ‘Strict naming policy’ option and save.

      Installing essential FusionDirectory plugins

      • Setup LDAP related plugins:
        apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-ldapdump fusiondirectory-plugin-ldapmanager
        
      • Setup the DSA plugin for managing service accounts:
        apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-dsa fusiondirectory-plugin-dsa-schema
        fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/dsa-fd-conf.schema
        
        • Allow the service accounts to read and write the password. First create the ACL definition:

          <

          pre>
          cat > /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/service_accounts_acl.ldif < < EOF
          dn: olcDatabase={1}mdb,cn=config
          changetype: modify

      delete: olcAccess

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {0}to dn.subtree=”dc=example,dc=com” attrs=userPassword
        by self write
        by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by dn.children=”ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by anonymous auth

        by * none

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {1}to dn.subtree=”ou=people,dc=example,dc=com”
        by self read
        by dn.base=”uid=test.user,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by dn.children=”ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com” read
        by anonymous auth

        by * none

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {2}to attrs=userPassword,shadowLastChange
        by self write
        by anonymous auth
        by dn=”cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com” write

        by * none

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {3}to dn.subtree=”dc=example,dc=com”
        by self read
        by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by dn.children=”ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com” write

        by * none

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {4}to dn.base=””
        by * none
      EOF

          **NOTE: Add two spaces before each '*by*' in the ldif above or you will spend endless hours in troubleshooting!**
      
      * Apply the ACL
      
          ```
      

      ldapadd -c -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/service_accounts_acl.ldif
      “`

      • Setup the Systems plugin:
        apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-systems fusiondirectory-plugin-systems-schema
        fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/service-fd.schema
        fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/systems-fd-conf.schema
        fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/systems-fd.schema
        
        • Setup a new server:
          • Name: ldap.example.com
          • Description: Communications Server
          • Location: My Datacenter
          • Base: /
    • IP-address: 10.134.31.94

    • MAC-address: 04:01:05:d6:63:02
  • From the ‘Services’ tab setup an LDAP service on the ldap.example.com server

  • You are finished. You can now start connecting services to your LDAP setup like mail or asterisk.

    References

    • https://documentation.fusiondirectory.org/en/start

    I have been using [Skelleton](https://www.skelleton.net)’s guide[^guide] to setup [opendmarc](http://www.trusteddomain.org/opendmarc/) on some mail server I am building.

    My problem is the version of opendmarc that comes with Debian is 1.3.0 and this version has a bug[^list] which fails to honor the *IgnoreAuthenticatedClients* directive.

    This is an attempt to build[^build] the newest version, 1.3.1, for Debian jessie.

    ### Prepare the environment

    * Install all necessary packages:

    “`
    $ sudo apt -y install pbuilder debootstrap devscripts packaging-dev debian-keyring
    “`

    * Prepare a Debian jessie build environment:

    “`
    $ sudo pbuilder create –debootstrapopts –variant=buildd –mirror http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ –distribution jessie –architecture amd64 –components main –debbuildopts -mJohn Doe \
    “`

    ### Prepare the Debian environment for *opendmarc* 1.3.1

    * Download and extract the package:

    “`
    $ wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/opendmarc/opendmarc-1.3.1.tar.gz
    $ tar xvzf opendmarc-1.3.1.tar.gz
    $ cd opendmarc-1.3.1/
    “`
    * Prepare for Debian packaging:

    “`
    $ DEBFULLNAME=”John Doe” DEBEMAIL=”john.doe@example.net” dh_make -s -y –createorig
    “`

    * Rename the *debian* folder:

    “`
    $ mv debian debian.orig
    “`

    * Shamelessly copy *debian/** from the original:

    “`
    $ cd /tmp/
    $ apt-get source opendmarc
    $ cd opendmarc-1.3.1+dfsg/
    $ cp -a debian/ ~/opendmarc-1.3.1
    “`

    * Optional steps:

    * Change the Author name to yours in *debian/control*

    * Restore the *debian/changelog* file:

    “`
    $ cp debian.orig/changelog debian/
    “`

    * Get rid of the *debian.orig* folder:

    “`
    $ mv debian.orig/ ..
    “`

    * Edit the *debian/changelog* file with `dch -e`:

    opendmarc (1.3.1-1) unstable; urgency=medium
      * Initial release: To fix the IgnoreAuthenticatedClients issue:     http://www.trusteddomain.org/pipermail/opendmarc-users/2016-April/000636.html
     -- John Doe <john.doe@example.net> Fri, 29 Apr 2016 13:43:22 +0300

    ### Build *opendmarc* 1.3.1

    * Run *pdebuild*:

    “`
    $ pdebuild
    “`

    * You cab find the resultant debs under */var/cache/pbuilder/result/*:

    “`
    $ ls -la /var/cache/pbuilder/result/
    total 868
    drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Απρ 29 13:54 .
    drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 4096 Απρ 29 12:56 ..
    -rw-r–r– 1 theodotos theodotos 38534 Απρ 29 13:54 libopendmarc2_1.3.1-1_amd64.deb
    -rw-r–r– 1 theodotos theodotos 64210 Απρ 29 13:54 libopendmarc-dev_1.3.1-1_amd64.deb
    -rw-r–r– 1 theodotos theodotos 2348 Απρ 29 13:54 opendmarc_1.3.1-1_amd64.changes
    -rw-r–r– 1 theodotos theodotos 75890 Απρ 29 13:54 opendmarc_1.3.1-1_amd64.deb
    -rw-rw-r– 1 theodotos theodotos 846 Απρ 29 13:54 opendmarc_1.3.1-1.dsc
    -rw-r–r– 1 theodotos theodotos 663859 Απρ 29 13:54 opendmarc_1.3.1-1.tar.gz
    -rw-r–r– 1 theodotos theodotos 17136 Απρ 29 13:54 rddmarc_1.3.1-1_all.deb
    “`

    You can now copy the debs over your mail server and test them.

    __Update: I did this before I had discovered that opendmarc 1.3.1 is in Debian jessie backports[^backports]. But an interesting drill nevertheless.__

    References
    ———-
    [^guide]: https://www.skelleton.net/2015/03/21/how-to-eliminate-spam-and-protect-your-name-with-dmarc/
    [^list]: http://www.trusteddomain.org/pipermail/opendmarc-users/2016-April/000636.html
    [^build]: http://www.theo-andreou.org/?p=1145
    [^backports]: http://www.trusteddomain.org/pipermail/opendmarc-users/2016-April/000641.html