LDAP/Fusiondirectory setup

In this guide we will be setting up LDAP (openldap) along with the FusionDirectory web management tool.

Preparations

  • Install Debian jessie (Ubuntu 16.04 should work too) on your server or VM
  • Setup the DNS records in your DNS servers:

    ldap.example.com.           3599    IN      A       1.1.1.1
    

    NOTE: replace 1.1.1.1 with you actual internal or external IP

  • Allow ssh and web services on firewall:

    apt -y install ufw
    ufw allow 22/tcp
    ufw allow 80/tcp
    ufw allow 443/tcp
    ufw enable
    

    NOTE: It may be a good idea to change the default ssh port from 22 to something less predictable

Setup LDAP

  • Setup ldap.example.com in /etc/hosts:

    127.0.2.1 ldap.example.com ldap
    

  • Install OpenLDAP and FusionDirectory
    apt -y install slapd
    

    Enter and verify the administrator password for slapd.

  • Create An Internal Certificate Authority for Example LTD:

    • First install gnutls-bin:
      apt -y install gnutls-bin
      
    • Create the key for the internal CA for example.com:
      certtool --generate-privkey --outfile example.com-rootCA.key
      
    • Create a certificate for our internal CA:
certtool --generate-self-signed --load-privkey example.com-rootCA.key --outfile example.com-rootCA.crt
Generating a self signed certificate...
Please enter the details of the certificate's distinguished name. Just press enter to ignore a field.
Common name: Example LTD Internal ROOT CA
UID: 
Organizational unit name: IT
Organization name: Example LTD
Locality name: Limassol
State or province name: Limassol
Country name (2 chars): CY
Enter the subject's domain component (DC): 
This field should not be used in new certificates.
E-mail: admins@example.com
Enter the certificate's serial number in decimal (default: 6295758616856773074): 
The certificate will expire in (days): 7300

Activation/Expiration time. The certificate will expire in (days): 7300

Extensions. Does the certificate belong to an authority? (y/N): y Path length constraint (decimal, -1 for no constraint): -1 Is this a TLS web client certificate? (y/N): Will the certificate be used for IPsec IKE operations? (y/N): Is this a TLS web server certificate? (y/N): Enter a dnsName of the subject of the certificate: Enter a URI of the subject of the certificate: Enter the IP address of the subject of the certificate: Enter the e-mail of the subject of the certificate: Will the certificate be used to sign other certificates? (y/N): y Will the certificate be used to sign CRLs? (y/N): Will the certificate be used to sign code? (y/N): Will the certificate be used to sign OCSP requests? (y/N): Will the certificate be used for time stamping? (y/N): Enter the URI of the CRL distribution point: X.509 Certificate Information: Version: 3 Serial Number (hex): 575f071b0d5a41d2 Validity: Not Before: Mon Jun 13 19:19:27 UTC 2016 Not After: Sun Jun 08 19:20:00 UTC 2036 Subject: CN=Example LTD Internal ROOT CA,OU=IT,O=Example LTD,L=Limassol,ST=Limassol,C=CY,EMAIL=admins@example.com Subject Public Key Algorithm: RSA Algorithm Security Level: Medium (2048 bits) Modulus (bits 2048): 00:c0:75:c8:02:05:d0:0c:67:af:ac:0c:80:53:bf:cd a3:80:76:cf:3e:14:19:99:5c:24:b4:fc:b0:42:8d:5a 03:5d:04:a5:85:c7:fe:e3:d4:30:6c:4c:26:90:76:c5 3e:a0:dc:a7:53:a7:eb:13:60:78:44:b3:0a:b2:77:0c 46:19:96:ea:d2:46:82:9c:11:2c:a5:e2:a1:57:38:f4 8e:4d:74:4f:f9:41:dd:11:f4:c2:f5:9f:b7:9a:93:7d a7:f8:f3:dd:2e:08:6a:25:75:79:f3:63:e5:09:1f:bd 6a:38:45:85:f0:63:54:c0:08:68:41:15:66:a4:e3:84 49:7e:e5:c5:c7:6c:d3:c7:be:d5:5a:df:1a:1d:55:f8 35:73:bb:e3:ea:f7:66:af:d9:09:72:ca:17:5f:80:09 99:6a:49:e3:8b:f2:72:56:ac:f8:ba:60:49:d5:80:2a 07:e6:17:88:86:e4:3c:89:cd:af:2b:66:a1:af:53:f4 66:21:30:a3:22:af:a9:11:6e:98:e0:f7:6d:ef:8a:32 e9:0b:a4:82:7b:7b:db:2d:90:8e:bd:e4:54:04:a4:52 e8:cf:f6:2e:9b:97:46:ab:cb:38:06:23:33:db:42:0c 25:41:5a:d7:02:15:07:c6:e8:86:0b:a6:d7:7d:81:16 bd Exponent (bits 24): 01:00:01 Extensions: Basic Constraints (critical): Certificate Authority (CA): TRUE Key Purpose (not critical): Time stamping. Key Usage (critical): Certificate signing. Subject Key Identifier (not critical): 7a596f6dea4080e89c9e78a698d7126cd63dafa7 Other Information: Public Key ID: 7a596f6dea4080e89c9e78a698d7126cd63dafa7 Public key's random art: +--[ RSA 2048]----+ | | | . . | | . . . | | o . . | | . .+. S o | | =o..o. + . . | | o.o= .oo . o o | | oo+. .o o o | |o... E+ .o | +-----------------+

Is the above information ok? (y/N): y

Signing certificate...
  • Add the Example LTD Internal ROOT CA as trusted in ca-certificates:

    mkdir /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra
    cp example.com-rootCA.crt /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra
    dpkg-reconfigure ca-certificates
    

    Add the extra/example.com-rootCA.crt CA as a trusted CA.

  • Configure slapd:

    dpkg-reconfigure slapd
    
    • Omit OpenLDAP server configuration? No
    • DNS domain name: example.com
    • Organization name: Example LTD
    • Administrator password: ***************
    • Verify password: *************
    • Database backend to use: MDB
    • Do you want the database to be removed when slapd is purged? No
    • Move old database? Yes
    • Allow LDAPv2 protocol? No
  • Configure TLS on LDAP:
    • Create a key for ldap.example.com:
      certtool --generate-privkey --outfile ldap.example.com.key
      Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key...
      
    • Create a certificate for ldap.example.com:
      certtool --generate-certificate --load-privkey ldap.example.com.key --outfile ldap.example.com.crt --load-ca-certificate example.com-rootCA.crt --load-ca-privkey example.com-rootCA.key
      Generating a signed certificate...
      Please enter the details of the certificate's distinguished name. Just press enter to ignore a field.
      Common name: ldap.example.com
      UID: 
      Organizational unit name: IT
      Organization name: Example LTD
      Locality name: Limassol
      State or province name: Limassol
      Country name (2 chars): CY
      Enter the subject's domain component (DC): 
      This field should not be used in new certificates.
      E-mail: admins@example.com
      Enter the certificate's serial number in decimal (default: 6295762607454361711):

      Activation/Expiration time. The certificate will expire in (days):
      3650

      Extensions. Does the certificate belong to an authority? (y/N): Is this a TLS web client certificate? (y/N): Will the certificate be used for IPsec IKE operations? (y/N): Is this a TLS web server certificate? (y/N): Enter a dnsName of the subject of the certificate: Enter a URI of the subject of the certificate: Enter the IP address of the subject of the certificate: Enter the e-mail of the subject of the certificate: Will the certificate be used for signing (required for TLS)? (Y/n): Will the certificate be used for encryption (not required for TLS)? (Y/n): X.509 Certificate Information: Version: 3 Serial Number (hex): 575f0abc2f81186f Validity: Not Before: Mon Jun 13 19:35:45 UTC 2016 Not After: Thu Jun 11 19:36:29 UTC 2026 Subject: CN=ldap.example.com,OU=IT,O=Example LTD,L=Limassol,ST=Limassol,C=CY,EMAIL=admins@example.com Subject Public Key Algorithm: RSA Algorithm Security Level: Medium (2048 bits) Modulus (bits 2048): 00:d0:15:8e:02:90:5f:4a:9f:90:ea:1e:35:e6:4b:eb a9:8c:e5:bf:68:ec:83:0e:49:5b:d1:f0:08:4b:ac:b0 31:d2:e0:a7:eb:18:d3:ee:b8:38:b7:c4:0a:cc:97:cc b6:ac:2d:29:c8:a8:c4:7c:cc:f1:36:5a:e9:6b:52:f5 1e:e5:4f:90:67:34:1f:8c:a8:17:72:ee:40:87:ba:ae 8b:f8:4f:f8:be:51:ee:ea:d5:e4:17:63:79:22:41:c0 19:43:33:55:bb:46:80:5c:b8:16:18:fa:fb:17:58:c2 ed:d2:14:10:3b:57:5d:de:7f:29:ab:66:c2:81:87:05 f7:b7:27:78:a9:c0:8e:4f:1c:3f:66:6f:dd:43:26:9f 84:59:fb:c7:21:3c:62:4f:8d:4a:25:ab:7e:f0:5f:7e df:97:f7:79:f8:c7:2d:c8:5a:7a:de:ea:5b:c7:bd:e9 12:17:56:d3:47:ff:eb:fa:b5:6f:d9:56:8f:c7:e8:7a 46:92:75:cc:ff:de:0e:88:49:7d:d7:dd:6e:8d:3f:57 fa:0a:7a:3b:80:ec:0e:10:dd:70:d5:9a:8d:91:ce:72 44:06:21:d2:9d:e9:b8:91:13:68:4c:fc:e2:bb:4d:a8 97:ed:e9:a4:98:5d:e7:c0:ef:3e:9d:30:28:de:bd:10 01 Exponent (bits 24): 01:00:01 Extensions: Basic Constraints (critical): Certificate Authority (CA): FALSE Key Usage (critical): Digital signature. Key encipherment. Subject Key Identifier (not critical): 6d8a173de01efa11a892dda76ccd7abc609a2707 Authority Key Identifier (not critical): 7a596f6dea408aa89c9e78a698d7126cd63dafa7 Other Information: Public Key ID: 6d8a173de01efa00a892dda67ccd7abc609a2707 Public key's random art: +--[ RSA 2048]----+ | | | | | . | | . + | | A = | | +Y= . | | oo+kk+ | | iii==o* | | .=B**o. | +-----------------+

      Is the above information ok? (y/N): y

      Signing certificate...
    • Enable LDAPS in /etc/default/slapd:
      SLAPD_SERVICES="ldap:/// ldapi:/// ldaps:///"
      
    • Copy the ldap.example.com certficate and apply permissions
      mkdir /etc/ldap/ssl
      cp ldap.example.com.crt /etc/ldap/ssl
      cp ldap.example.com.key /etc/ldap/ssl
      chown -R openldap:openldap /etc/ldap/ssl    /
      
    • Create an olcSSL.ldif file:

      “`
      mkdir /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/
      cd /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/<br />
      cat > olcSSL.ldif < < EOF
      dn: cn=config
      changetype: modify
      add: olcTLSCACertificateFile</p></li>
      </ul></li>
      </ul>

      <h2>olcTLSCACertificateFile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt</h2>

      <p>add: olcTLSCertificateKeyFile

      <h2>olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.key</h2>

      add: olcTLSCertificateFile
      olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.crt
      EOF
      “`

      * Import the TLS configuration:
      
          ```
      

      ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f olcSSL.ldif
      “`

          Verify with:
      
          </pre><pre>
      

      slapcat -n0 | grep -i tls
      olcTLSCACertificateFile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
      olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.crt
      olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.key

      * Restart and verify *slapd*:
      
          <pre>
      

      systemctl restart slapd
      netstat -lnptu | grep slapd
      tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:636 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 27665/slapd
      tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:389 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 27665/slapd
      tcp6 0 0 :::636 :::* LISTEN 27665/slapd
      tcp6 0 0 :::389 :::* LISTEN 27665/slapd

      Setup Apache

      • Install Apache with PHP:
        apt -y install apache2 libapache2-mod-php5 php5-ldap php5-mcrypt php5-intl php-pear
        

      Setup Let’s Encrypt:

      NOTE: this step is only necessary if you have a public facing ldap.example.com service

      • Setup Debian jessie backports:

        “`
        cat >> /etc/apt/sources.list < < EOF</p></li>
        </ul>

        <h1>jessie backports</h1>

        <p>deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main
        deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main
        EOF
        “`

        • Run apt update
        • Install Let’s Encrypt utility, certbot:

          apt -y install python-certbot-apache -t jessie-backports
          

        • Generate a certificate for all the domain ldap.example.com:
          certbot run -d ldap.example.com
          

          In the TUI add the admins@example.com email and agree to the ToS. Use 000-default.conf for now.

        • Download and trust all Let’s Encrypt Root and Intermediate CA certificates:

          wget https://letsencrypt.org/certs/isrgrootx1.pem
          for i in {1..4}; do wget https://letsencrypt.org/certs/lets-encrypt-x$i-cross-signed.pem; done
          cp *.pem /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra/
          for f in *.pem; do cp -- "$f" "/usr/share/ca-certificates/extra/${f%.pem}.crt"; done
          dpkg-reconfigure ca-certificates # Select all the newlly added CA certs
          

        Setup FusionDirectory

        • Setup Fusiondirectory Repo:
          gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-key 62B4981F 
          gpg --export -a "Fusiondirectory Archive Manager <contact@fusiondirectory.org>" > FD-archive-key
          apt-key add FD-archive-key
          echo '# fusiondirectory repository' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/fusiondirectory.list
          echo 'deb http://repos.fusiondirectory.org/debian-jessie jessie main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/fusiondirectory.list
          echo 'deb-src http://repos.fusiondirectory.org/debian-jessie jessie main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/fusiondirectory.list
          apt update
          
        • Install FusionDirectory:
          apt -y install fusiondirectory fusiondirectory-schema
          
        • Insert core FusionDirectory schemas into *slapd
          fusiondirectory-insert-schema
          

          Verify:

          fusiondirectory-insert-schema -l
          core
          cosine
          nis
          inetorgperson
          samba
          core-fd
          core-fd-conf
          ldapns
          recovery-fd
          
        • Create a Fusiondirectory Apache vhost (/etc/apache2/sites-available/ldap.example.com.conf):
          <virtualhost *:80>
              ServerName ldap.example.com
              Redirect "/" "https://ldap.example.com/"
              ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-error.log
              CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-access.log combined
          </virtualhost>
          <ifmodule mod_ssl.c>
              <virtualhost *:443>
                      ServerName ldap.example.com
                      ServerAdmin webmaster@example.com
                      DocumentRoot /usr/share/fusiondirectory/html
                      ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-error.log
                      CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-access.log combined
                      SSLEngine on
                      SSLCertificateFile      /etc/letsencrypt/live/ldap.example.com/cert.pem
                      SSLCertificateKeyFile   /etc/letsencrypt/live/ldap.example.com/privkey.pem
                      <filesmatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
                                      SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
                      </filesmatch>
                      <directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
                                      SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
                      </directory>
                      BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \
                                      nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
                                      downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
                      BrowserMatch "MSIE [17-9]" ssl-unclean-shutdown
                      <ifmodule mod_php5.c>
                      <location></location>
                          php_admin_flag engine on
                          php_admin_flag register_globals off
                          php_admin_flag allow_call_time_pass_reference off
                          php_admin_flag expose_php off
                          php_admin_flag zend.ze1_compatibility_mode off
                          php_admin_flag register_long_arrays off
                          php_admin_value upload_tmp_dir /var/spool/fusiondirectory/
                          php_admin_value session.cookie_lifetime 0
                          #Include /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.secrets
          
                      </ifmodule>
                      <directory /usr/share/fusiondirectory/html></directory>
                          Order Allow,Deny
                          # Insert your public IPs here
                          Allow from 2.2.2.2
                          Allow from 2.2.2.3
          
              </virtualhost>
          </ifmodule>
          
        • Enable mod_ssl, ldap.example.com and disable 000-default and default-ssl:
          a2enmod ssl
          a2ensite ldap.example.com
          a2dissite default-ssl
          a2dissite 000-default
          systemctl restart apache2
          
        • Setup FusionDirectory:
          • Install optional prerequisities:
            apt -y install php-mdb2
            
          • Point your Browser to:
            https://ldap.example.com/
            
          • Create a temporary token for the setup (taken from the first setup webpage):
            echo -n r9l1srnu0rvdeca4k826nq4e05 > /var/cache/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.auth 
            

            Click ‘Next’

          • In the ‘Language setup’ select ‘English’ and press ‘Next’.

          • If everything is ‘OK'(Green) on the ‘Installation check’ click ‘Next’

          • On the ‘LDAP connection setup’:

            • Location name: default
            • Connection URI: ldap://ldap.example.com:389
            • TLS connection: Yes
            • Admin DN: cn=admin(,dc=example,dc=com)
            • Admin password: *************************
            • LDAP schema check:
              • Enable schema validation when logging in: Yes
          • Keep defaults in ‘Look and feel’ except ‘Timezone’:
            • Timezone: America/Los_Angeles
          • Keep all the defaults in ‘Password settings’ except this:
            • Password minimum length: 8
          • In the ‘SSL’ field use these:
            • Key path: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.key
            • Certificate path: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.crt
            • CA certificate path: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt

            Click ‘Next’ when done.

          • In the ‘LDAP inspection’ page:

            • Press ‘Migrate’ (twice) in the ‘Inspecting object classes in root object’ option
          • Press ‘Create’ in the ‘Checking for super administrator’ option’, fill the fields, and ‘Apply’ when done:

            • User ID: ldapadmin
            • Password: ***************
            • Password (again): ***************
          • In the ‘Checking for default ACL roles and groups’ field, press ‘Migrate’
        • From the ‘Finish – write the configuration file’, download the configuration file on your PC

        • Copy the configuration file from your PC to ldap.example.com:

          scp fusiondirectory.conf root@ldap.example.com:/etc/fusiondirectory
          

        • Apply the correct permissions to the /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf file:
          fusiondirectory-setup --check-config
          Checking FusionDirectory's config file
          /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf exists…
          /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf is not set properly, do you want to fix it ?:  [Yes/No]?
          y
          
        • Click ‘Next’ when done.
      • Use encrypted passwords in fusiondirectory.conf:

        • Enable the headers module in Apache:
          a2enmod headers
          systemctl restart apache2
          
        • Encrypt passwords in fusiondirectory.conf:
          fusiondirectory-setup --encrypt-passwords
          
        • Uncomment the following line in /etc/apache2/sites-available/ldap.example.com.conf:
          Include /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.secrets
          
        • Restart Apache:
          systemctl restart apache2
          
        • If everything works as expected remove /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf.orig
          rm /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf.orig
          
      • Allow ‘.’ (dot) in usernames:
        • After everything is set, login as ldapadmin
        • Go to ‘Configuration’
        • Press the ‘Edit’ button at the bottom of the page
        • Un-tick the ‘Strict naming policy’ option and save.

      Installing essential FusionDirectory plugins

      • Setup LDAP related plugins:
        apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-ldapdump fusiondirectory-plugin-ldapmanager
        
      • Setup the DSA plugin for managing service accounts:
        apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-dsa fusiondirectory-plugin-dsa-schema
        fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/dsa-fd-conf.schema
        
        • Allow the service accounts to read and write the password. First create the ACL definition:

          <

          pre>
          cat > /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/service_accounts_acl.ldif < < EOF
          dn: olcDatabase={1}mdb,cn=config
          changetype: modify

      delete: olcAccess

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {0}to dn.subtree=”dc=example,dc=com” attrs=userPassword
        by self write
        by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by dn.children=”ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by anonymous auth

        by * none

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {1}to dn.subtree=”ou=people,dc=example,dc=com”
        by self read
        by dn.base=”uid=test.user,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by dn.children=”ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com” read
        by anonymous auth

        by * none

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {2}to attrs=userPassword,shadowLastChange
        by self write
        by anonymous auth
        by dn=”cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com” write

        by * none

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {3}to dn.subtree=”dc=example,dc=com”
        by self read
        by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by dn.children=”ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com” write

        by * none

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {4}to dn.base=””
        by * none
      EOF

          **NOTE: Add two spaces before each '*by*' in the ldif above or you will spend endless hours in troubleshooting!**
      
      * Apply the ACL
      
          ```
      

      ldapadd -c -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/service_accounts_acl.ldif
      “`

      • Setup the Systems plugin:
        apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-systems fusiondirectory-plugin-systems-schema
        fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/service-fd.schema
        fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/systems-fd-conf.schema
        fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/systems-fd.schema
        
        • Setup a new server:
          • Name: ldap.example.com
          • Description: Communications Server
          • Location: My Datacenter
          • Base: /
    • IP-address: 10.134.31.94

    • MAC-address: 04:01:05:d6:63:02
  • From the ‘Services’ tab setup an LDAP service on the ldap.example.com server

  • You are finished. You can now start connecting services to your LDAP setup like mail or asterisk.

    References

    • https://documentation.fusiondirectory.org/en/start

    I have been using [Skelleton](https://www.skelleton.net)’s guide[^guide] to setup [opendmarc](http://www.trusteddomain.org/opendmarc/) on some mail server I am building.

    My problem is the version of opendmarc that comes with Debian is 1.3.0 and this version has a bug[^list] which fails to honor the *IgnoreAuthenticatedClients* directive.

    This is an attempt to build[^build] the newest version, 1.3.1, for Debian jessie.

    ### Prepare the environment

    * Install all necessary packages:

    “`
    $ sudo apt -y install pbuilder debootstrap devscripts packaging-dev debian-keyring
    “`

    * Prepare a Debian jessie build environment:

    “`
    $ sudo pbuilder create –debootstrapopts –variant=buildd –mirror http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ –distribution jessie –architecture amd64 –components main –debbuildopts -mJohn Doe \
    “`

    ### Prepare the Debian environment for *opendmarc* 1.3.1

    * Download and extract the package:

    “`
    $ wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/opendmarc/opendmarc-1.3.1.tar.gz
    $ tar xvzf opendmarc-1.3.1.tar.gz
    $ cd opendmarc-1.3.1/
    “`
    * Prepare for Debian packaging:

    “`
    $ DEBFULLNAME=”John Doe” DEBEMAIL=”john.doe@example.net” dh_make -s -y –createorig
    “`

    * Rename the *debian* folder:

    “`
    $ mv debian debian.orig
    “`

    * Shamelessly copy *debian/** from the original:

    “`
    $ cd /tmp/
    $ apt-get source opendmarc
    $ cd opendmarc-1.3.1+dfsg/
    $ cp -a debian/ ~/opendmarc-1.3.1
    “`

    * Optional steps:

    * Change the Author name to yours in *debian/control*

    * Restore the *debian/changelog* file:

    “`
    $ cp debian.orig/changelog debian/
    “`

    * Get rid of the *debian.orig* folder:

    “`
    $ mv debian.orig/ ..
    “`

    * Edit the *debian/changelog* file with `dch -e`:

    opendmarc (1.3.1-1) unstable; urgency=medium
      * Initial release: To fix the IgnoreAuthenticatedClients issue:     http://www.trusteddomain.org/pipermail/opendmarc-users/2016-April/000636.html
     -- John Doe <john.doe@example.net> Fri, 29 Apr 2016 13:43:22 +0300

    ### Build *opendmarc* 1.3.1

    * Run *pdebuild*:

    “`
    $ pdebuild
    “`

    * You cab find the resultant debs under */var/cache/pbuilder/result/*:

    “`
    $ ls -la /var/cache/pbuilder/result/
    total 868
    drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Απρ 29 13:54 .
    drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 4096 Απρ 29 12:56 ..
    -rw-r–r– 1 theodotos theodotos 38534 Απρ 29 13:54 libopendmarc2_1.3.1-1_amd64.deb
    -rw-r–r– 1 theodotos theodotos 64210 Απρ 29 13:54 libopendmarc-dev_1.3.1-1_amd64.deb
    -rw-r–r– 1 theodotos theodotos 2348 Απρ 29 13:54 opendmarc_1.3.1-1_amd64.changes
    -rw-r–r– 1 theodotos theodotos 75890 Απρ 29 13:54 opendmarc_1.3.1-1_amd64.deb
    -rw-rw-r– 1 theodotos theodotos 846 Απρ 29 13:54 opendmarc_1.3.1-1.dsc
    -rw-r–r– 1 theodotos theodotos 663859 Απρ 29 13:54 opendmarc_1.3.1-1.tar.gz
    -rw-r–r– 1 theodotos theodotos 17136 Απρ 29 13:54 rddmarc_1.3.1-1_all.deb
    “`

    You can now copy the debs over your mail server and test them.

    __Update: I did this before I had discovered that opendmarc 1.3.1 is in Debian jessie backports[^backports]. But an interesting drill nevertheless.__

    References
    ———-
    [^guide]: https://www.skelleton.net/2015/03/21/how-to-eliminate-spam-and-protect-your-name-with-dmarc/
    [^list]: http://www.trusteddomain.org/pipermail/opendmarc-users/2016-April/000636.html
    [^build]: http://www.theo-andreou.org/?p=1145
    [^backports]: http://www.trusteddomain.org/pipermail/opendmarc-users/2016-April/000641.html

    These are the instructions for installing an [ORCID](http://orcid.org/)[^orcid] authentication node. We will be using the [simple-orcid-auth-node](https://github.com/ORCID/simple-orcid-auth-node)[^soan] developed by the ORCID organization.

    ### Assumptions

    * An Ubuntu 16.04 server machine but works on 14.04x with some minor changes.
    * A FQDN, let’s say *orcid.example.com*.
    * Server IP is 10.2.2.2 in our case.
    * Create an *orcid* user: `sudo useradd -r -m -d /var/www/html/orcid orcid`.
    * For Ubuntu 14.04 it is better to use */var/www/orcid* instead of */var/www/html/orcid*.
    * Also use `service restart` on 14.04.x instead of `systemctl restart `.

    ### Installing *simple-orcid-auth-node*

    * Install necessary packages (as a privileged user):

    “`
    $ sudo apt -y install nginx nodejs npm
    “`

    __NOTE: If you are using Ubuntu 14.04.x do not install the [node](http://packages.ubuntu.com/trusty/node) package. This package is completely unrelated with [nodejs](https://nodejs.org/en/).__[^node]

    * Download and extract *simple-orcid-auth-node* (as the *orcid* user):

    “`
    sudo su – orcid
    wget https://github.com/rcpeters/simple-orcid-auth-node/archive/master.tar.gz
    tar xvzf master.tar.gz
    “`

    * Install the application:

    “`
    $ cd simple-orcid-auth-node-master/
    $ npm install
    “`

    * Test run the application (as the *orcid* user):

    “`
    $ nodejs client-app.js
    server started on 8000
    “`

    Looks OK. Now point your Hit CTRL^C and move on.

    __NOTE: If you prefer using the legacy `node client-app.js` invocation, you need to install the [nodejs-legacy](http://packages.ubuntu.com/xenial/nodejs-legacy) package as well.__

    ### Setting ORCID as an autostart service

    * Autostart using *systemd*[^systemd] (Ubuntu 16.04):

    * Create the */etc/systemd/system/orcid.service* service definition (as the *root* user):

    $ cat > /etc/systemd/system/orcid.service << EOF
    [Service]
    ExecStart=/usr/bin/nodejs /var/www/html/orcid/simple-orcid-auth-node-master/client-app.js
    WorkingDirectory=/var/www/html/orcid/simple-orcid-auth-node-master
    Restart=always
    StandardOutput=syslog
    StandardError=syslog
    SyslogIdentifier=orcid
    User=orcid
    Group=orcid
    Environment=NODE_ENV=production
    [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target EOF

    * Reload *systemd* and start the service:

    “`
    $ sudo systemctl daemon-reload
    $ sudo systemctl start orcid.service
    “`

    * Verify that the service is started:

    $ sudo systemctl status orcid.service
    ● orcid.service
       Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/orcid.service; disabled; vendor preset: enabled)
       Active: active (running) since Wed 2016-04-27 09:00:16 UTC; 37s ago
     Main PID: 11141 (nodejs)
        Tasks: 5 (limit: 512)
       Memory: 24.1M
          CPU: 268ms
       CGroup: /system.slice/orcid.service
               └─11141 /usr/bin/nodejs /var/www/html/orcid/simple-orcid-auth-node-master/client-app.js
    Apr 27 09:00:16 orcid systemd[1]: Started orcid.service. Apr 27 09:00:16 orcid orcid[11141]: server started on 8000

    * Autostart using *sysv-init* (Ubuntu 14.04.x):

    * Prepare a *sysv-init* startup script or use mine for convinience:

    “`
    $ cd /etc/init.d
    $ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/theodotos/arena/master/orcid
    $ chmod +x orcid
    $ update-rc.d orcid enable
    $ update-rc.d orcid defaults
    “`

    Now *orcid* should be able to autostart after a reboot.

    ### Setting up nginx

    * Prepare this configuration:

    $ cat > /etc/nginx/sites-available/orcid << EOF
    server {
        listen 80;     listen [::]:80 ipv6only=on;
        server_name orcid.example.com;
        access_log /var/log/nginx/orcid.access.log;     error_log /var/log/nginx/orcid.error.log;
        location / {         proxy_pass http://localhost:8000/;         proxy_set_header Host \$host;         proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For \$proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;     } } EOF

    * Enable the *orcid* site:

    “`
    $ cd /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
    $ sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/orcid
    “`

    * Uncomment the following line in */etc/nginx/nginx.conf*[^nginx]:

    “`
    server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
    “`

    * Restart *nginx*:

    “`
    $ sudo systemctl restart nginx.service
    “`

    * Verify *nginx* with `sudo systemctl status nginx.service`

    Now you can visit the http://orcid.example.com site and test your setup

    ### Going to production

    The default *simple-orcid-auth-node* is using the sandbox ORCID service which is ideal for testing. This is how the configuration file (*helpers/config.js*) looks like:

    “`
    module.exports = config = {
    // Config for OAuth2
    CLIENT_ID: ‘APP-O9TUKAPVLALU1SOJ’,
    CLIENT_SECRET: ‘0eafb938-020e-45a6-a148-3c222171d9d8’,
    AUTHORIZE_URI: ‘https://sandbox.orcid.org/oauth/authorize’,
    TOKEN_EXCHANGE_URI: ‘https://api.sandbox.orcid.org/oauth/token’,
    CODE_CALLBACK_URI: ‘http://localhost:8000/authorization-code-callback’,
    // General server config
    PORT: ‘8000’,
    SERVER_IP: ‘127.0.0.1’,
    }

    “`

    This setup will not work in production. You have to modify the **CLIENT_ID** and **CLIENT_SECRET** variables with your own credentials and change the **AUTHORIZE_URI** and **TOKEN_EXCHANGE_URI** to point to the production ORCID services:

    module.exports = config = {
      // Config for OAuth2 
      CLIENT_ID: 'APP-HSGSHJS335353GSGSG',
      CLIENT_SECRET: '56d4eb21-6622-8483-3422-f53f3fs53sfs35f',
      AUTHORIZE_URI: 'https://orcid.org/oauth/authorize',
      TOKEN_EXCHANGE_URI: 'https://api.orcid.org/oauth/token',
      CODE_CALLBACK_URI: 'http://localhost:8000/authorization-code-callback',
      // General server config
      PORT: '8000',
      SERVER_IP: '127.0.0.1',
    }
    ...
    

    Restart *nginx* and *orcid* when done:

    “`
    $ sudo systemctl restart nginx.service orcid.service
    “`

    References
    ———-

    [^orcid]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ORCID
    [^soan]: https://github.com/ORCID/simple-orcid-auth-node
    [^node]: https://github.com/ORCID/simple-orcid-auth-node/issues/3
    [^systemd]: https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-deploy-node-js-applications-using-systemd-and-nginx
    [^nginx]: http://charles.lescampeurs.org/2008/11/14/fix-nginx-increase-server_names_hash_bucket_size

    This article is about setting up you own ebook library with support for the [OPDS](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OPDS) catalog format . The COPS ebook catalog can read a [Calibre](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calibre_%28software%29) library and expose it as a website. It is developed on PHP.

    Prerequisites
    ————-

    * Prepare a Linux system. In this guide we are using Ubuntu 14.04.4.
    * Have a *cops.example.com* DNS A record pointing to the IP of your server.

    Install necessary packages
    ————————–

    $  sudo apt-get -y samba nginx php5-fpm php5-gd php5-sqlite php5-json php5-intl git
    

    Setup a SAMBA share
    ——————-

    Samba is needed for sharing the Calibre library directory with the library administrator. Alternatively you could use NFS or even [OwnCloud](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OwnCloud).

    > **Note**
    >
    > It is a security risk to expose Samba on a public server. Restrict it through firewall or use OwnCloud instead.

    * Tweak the Samba configuration file (*/etc/samba/smb.conf*):

        #  unix password sync = yes
           unix password sync = no
        
        #  pam password change = yes
           pam password change = no
        

    * Add a Samba share for calibre (*/etc/samba/smb.conf*):

    “`
    [calibre$]
    path = /srv/calibre
    valid users = calibre
    write list = calibre
    read only = no
    “`

    * Restart Samba services:

        $ sudo service smbd restart ; sudo service nmbd restart
        

    * Add the *calibre* user:

        $ useradd -m -d /srv/calibre -s /usr/sbin/nologin calibre
        $ smbpasswd -a calibre
        

    Setup Calibre
    ————-

    * Now you should setup Calibre on your PC. On Debian/Ubuntu:

        $ sudo apt-get -y install calibre
        

    Windows users can download it from here:

    http://calibre-ebook.com/download_windows

    * Configure Calibre to use the calibre share as its catalog:

    * You can “mount” the calibre share on Linux or “map” the share on Windows.
    * Create an *ebook* Directory under the calibre share.
    * Create a new Calibre library inside the *ebook* directory. From the Calibre menu:
    * Callibre Library –> Switch/create library -> Create an empty Library at the new location and fill the path in the “New Location” text field.
    * If you get an error about “Corrupted database” just click ‘Yes” to rebuilt it.
    * Start adding books

    Setup COPS OPDS
    —————

    * Download the software:

        $ mkdir /var/www
        $ cd /var/www
        $ git clone https://github.com/seblucas/cops.git
        

    * Setup *COPS*:

    Under the */var/www/cops/* directory, copy the *config_default.php.example* to *config_default.php*:

        $ cp config_local.php.example config_local.php
        

    Make the following changes in *config_default.php*:

    “`
    **Note**:
    >
    > The *feed.php* setting was redirecting me to an XML site with this error: ***This XML file does not appear to have any style information associated with it. The document tree is shown below.*** So I am using *index.php* instead, as the index file.

    * Enable the *cops.example.com* site and disable the default:

        $ cd /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
        $ sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/cops.example.com
        $ sudo unlink default
        

    * Restart *nginx* and *php5-fpm*:

        $ sudo service php5-fpm restart ; sudo service nginx restart
        

    * Change permissions to let *nginx* write to the library:

        $ usermod -a -G calibre www-data
        $ chmod -R g+w /srv/calibre/ebooks/
        

    Now you can navigate to http://cops.example.com and enjoy your newly created ebook library!

    References
    ———-
    * https://github.com/seblucas/cops
    * http://blog.slucas.fr/en/oss/calibre-opds-php-server
    * https://github.com/seblucas/cops/wiki/Full-example-with-Nginx

    This guide describes how to upgrade your [XstreamTec HTPC appliance](http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/B00F0PZZIW?psc=1&redirect=true&ref_=oh_aui_detailpage_o00_s00 “XstreamTec HTPC”) from XBMC to [KODI](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kodi_%28software%29 “KODI”) or re-install the system, in case of system corruption.

    XstreamTec does not appear to have an official website but I have contacted them via Amazon and they promptly replied with instructions.

    Prerequisities
    ————–
    * An XstreamTec HTPC media player.
    * A Linux system with an SD card slot.
    * A Windows PC or VM (optional).
    * An empty SD card (4GB minimum).

    Install the recovery firmware
    —————————–

    1. Download the android recovery sd card image (use Google Chrome or Chromium):

    https://mega.co.nz/#!wExHTJgC!XPuoFyhF_S-roTEhsMhQ8BLrfH4R5tXhp2jwaLF_o1M

    * Convert the image to raw format:

    If you extract the downloaded file (***MATRICOM_MX2_115_FULL_AUG_09_2013.rar***) you will get the image file (***MATRICOM_MX2_115_FULL_AUG_09_2013.imgc***). Alas this file has a peculiar format (*****.imgc*****) which is some kind of compressed raw image. I couldn’t figure out how to convert this to a raw (suitable for **`dd`**) image on Linux. To convert this to raw you need a Windows only utility called **HDDRawCopy**. So you will need a Windows system ([WINE](https://www.winehq.org/ “WineHQ”) does not work for this) and use **HDDRawCopy** to convert the *****.imgc***** file to ***Raw/dd*** format.

    If you do not have a Windows machine, you can download the image I converted already, in *****.bz2***** format from here:
    [MATRICOM_MX2_115_FULL_AUG_09_2013.dd.bz2](files/MATRICOM_MX2_115_FULL_AUG_09_2013.dd.bz2 “XstreamTec Recovery Image”). Just extract it like this to get the raw image:

       $ cd ~/Downloads
       $ bzip2 -d MATRICOM_MX2_115_FULL_AUG_09_2013.dd.bz2
       

    * Prepare the SD card:

    > ***Note***
    > *Make sure you don’t have any useful data on the SD card!*

    First verify that the SD card is inserted:

          $ cat /proc/partitions 
          major minor  #blocks  name
          
              8        0  488386584 sda
              8        1     524288 sda1
              8        2     249856 sda2
              8        3  487610368 sda3
             11        0    1048575 sr0
           252        0  487608320 dm-0
           252        1  483524608 dm-1
           252        2    4067328 dm-2
           179        0    7761920 mmcblk0
           179        1      71680 mmcblk0p1
           179        2     124928 mmcblk0p2
           179        3    7559168 mmcblk0p3
          

    Unmount all partitions on the SD card:

          $ sudo umount /dev/mmcblk0p*
          

    Now use **`fdisk`** and delete all partitions from the SD card:

          $ sudo fdisk /dev/mmcblk0
          

    * Dump the image on the SD card:

    After preparing the SD card we need to dump the raw image on it:

             $ sudo dd if=MATRICOM_MX2_115_FULL_AUG_09_2013.dd of=/dev/mmcblk0
          

    > ***Note***
    > *Be very careful with `dd`! If you specify the wrong device on the `of=` parameter you may destroy useful data on other devices, even you main hard disk!*

    Boot the recovery image
    ———————–

    Now we need to go though these steps to load the recovery image:

    1. Power off the XstreamTec appliance.

    2. Insert the SD card, in the SD slot of the XstreamTec.

    3. Press the reset button. This is somewhat tricky. The reset button is inside the AV port of the XstreamTec so you will need a toothpick to press it.

    4. Power on the appliance, while keeping the reset button pressed. The system will enter the recovery installation procedure. Release the reset button when the recovery starts.

    5. Follow the on-screen instructions to load the Android recovery image. Then reboot into android and see if it boots correctly.

    Install the newer version of the Android system
    ———————————————–

    Now we need to install a more recent version of Android on the XstreamTec.

    1. Download the newer Android firmware:

       $ cd ~/Downloads
       $ wget http://matriserver.com/files/MX2/firmware/MX2-full-1.1.6-firmware-RC.zip
       

    2. Prepare the SD card:

    * Insert the SD card in your PC and check if it is mounted:

          $ df -hT | grep mmc
          /dev/mmcblk0p1              vfat      3,7G  100M  3,6G   3% /media/user/0E99-207A
          

    * Delete all previous files from the SD card:

          $ cd /media/user/0E99-207A
          $ rm -fr * 
          

    > ***Note***
    > *Once again make sure you don’t have any data you need on the SD card.*

    3. Load the firmware on the SD card.

    Unzip the contents of the downloaded zip file (**MX2-full-1.1.6-firmware-RC.zip**) on the SD card:

       $ cd /media/user/0E99-207A
       $ unzip ~/Downloads/MX2-full-1.1.6-firmware-RC.zip
       

    Boot the new Android firmware
    ——————————

    Go through these steps agaon to load the new Android firmware:

    1. Power off the XstreamTec appliance.

    2. Insert the SD card in the SD slot of the XstreamTec.

    3. Press the reset button. Repeat the toothpick procedure as previously.

    4. Power on the appliance while keeping the reset button pressed. The system will enter the new Android firmware installation procedure. Release the reset button when the recovery starts.

    5. Follow the on-screen instructions to load the new Android firmware. Then reboot into the new Android and see if it boots correctly.

    One would be tempted to keep the Android system and use XBMC or install Kodi on it. This way you can have Android and XBMC/Kodi on your XstreamTec appliance. Alas the XBMC/Kodi experience for Android is not as good as the one on OpenELEC. Trust me, if you need the full Kodi experience you need to install OpenELEC.

    Install OpenELEC on the XstreamTec HTPC media player
    —————————————————-

    1. Download the OpenELEC firmware:

       $ cd ~/Downloads
       $ wget https://www.dropbox.com/s/toe4kxi9ivomlmp/OpenELEC-Amlogic.MX2.arm-5.0.3.zip
       

    > **Update:**
    > There is a newer version at [github](https://github.com/codesnake/OpenELEC.tv/releases/download/6.0.1/OpenELEC-Amlogic.M8.arm-6.0.1.zip).

    2. Prepare the SD card:

    * Insert the SD card in your PC and check if it is mounted:

          $ df -hT | grep mmc
          /dev/mmcblk0p1              vfat      3,7G  100M  3,6G   3% /media/user/0E99-207A
          

    * Delete all previous files from the SD card:

          $ cd /media/user/0E99-207A
          $ rm -fr * 
          

    3. Load the OpenELEC firmware on the SD card.

    Unzip the contents of the downloaded zip file (**OpenELEC-Amlogic.MX2.arm-5.0.3.zip**) on the SD card:

       $ cd /media/user/0E99-207A
       $ unzip ~/Downloads/OpenELEC-Amlogic.MX2.arm-5.0.3.zip
       

    Boot the OpenELEC firmware
    ————————–

    Once again repeat these steps to load the OpenELEC firmware:

    1. Power off the XstreamTec appliance.

    2. Insert the SD card in the SD slot of the XstreamTec.

    3. Press the reset button. Repeat the toothpick procedure as previously.

    4. Power on the appliance while keeping the reset button pressed. The system will enter the OpenELEC installation procedure. Release the reset button when the recovery starts.

    5. Follow the on-screen instructions to load the OpenELEC firmware. Then reboot into your freshly installed system and see if it works properly.

    Enjoy your Kodi experience!

    References
    ———-
    * http://kodi.tv/
    * http://openelec.tv/

    This is a guide to setup a recent Ubuntu system on a Utilite ARM computer, to replace the official Ubuntu 12.04 OS.

    Prerequisites
    ————-

    * You need to prepare a [kernel with cgroups](/?p=1073 “Building a new Linux kernel for your Utilite Computer”) support.
    * An ARM bootable microSD or USB. You can use the official Ubuntu 12.04 [Linux Utilite Image](http://www.compulab.co.il/utilite-computer/wiki/index.php/Utilite_Linux_Image “Linux Utilite Image”) on the removable device.
    * Backup any data you have on the original system!

    Preparations
    ————

    1. Boot from microSD or USB.

    2. Update the system and install **`debootstrap`**:

       $ sudo apt-get update
       $ sudo apt-get install debootstrap
       

    3. Mount the SATA root filesystem on ***/mnt***:

       $ sudo mount /dev/sda2 /mnt
       

    4. Clear the filesystem:

    > ***Note***
    > *Make sure you save any data you need, before doing this!.*

       $ sudo rm -fr /mnt/*
       

    Installation of an Ubuntu or Debian base system
    ———————————————–

    1. Use **`debootstrap`** to install the Ubuntu base system:

       $ sudo debootstrap --foreign --arch=armhf trusty /mnt http://ports.ubuntu.com/
       

    You can use **vivid** instead of **trusty** if you are feeling adventurous.

    For a Debian system use this command instead:

       $ sudo debootstrap --foreign --arch armhf jessie /mnt http://ftp.uk.debian.org/debian
       

    You can use **stretch** or **sid** instead of **jessie** if you are feeling lucky.

    2. Chroot into the new system:

       $ sudo mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev
       $ sudo mount -o bind /dev/pts /mnt/dev/pts
       $ sudo mount -t sysfs /sys /mnt/sys
       $ sudo mount -t proc /proc /mnt/proc
       $ sudo cp /proc/mounts /mnt/etc/mtab
       $ sudo chroot /mnt
       

    3. Second stage **`debootstrap`**:

    After you enter the **chroot** jail, we need to complete the second stage of the base setup:

       # /debootstrap/debootstrap --second-stage
       

    Installing additional packages
    ——————————-

    1. Setup the correct timezone:

       # dpkg-reconfigure tzdata
       

    2. Add repositories in ***/etc/apt/sources.list***.

    * For Ubuntu:
    “`
    deb http://ports.ubuntu.com/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
    deb http://ports.ubuntu.com/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
    deb http://ports.ubuntu.com/ trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
    deb http://ports.ubuntu.com/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse

    deb-src http://ports.ubuntu.com/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
    deb-src http://ports.ubuntu.com/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
    deb-src http://ports.ubuntu.com/ trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
    deb-src http://ports.ubuntu.com/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
    “`

    * For Debian:

    “`
    deb http://ftp.uk.debian.org/debian jessie main contrib non-free
    deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ jessie-updates main contrib non-free
    deb http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib non-free

    deb-src http://ftp.uk.debian.org/debian jessie main contrib non-free
    deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ jessie-updates main contrib non-free
    deb-src http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib non-free
    “`

    * Run update after adding the repositories:

          # apt-get update
          

    2. Install additional software.

    * We need to create a fake **`/sbin/initctl`** to prevent **apt** from breaking:

          # dpkg-divert --local --rename --add /sbin/initctl
          # ln -s /bin/true /sbin/initctl
          

    * Install the software you need:

          # apt-get -y install language-pack-en ssh isc-dhcp-client net-tools man lsof less
          

    * Remove the fake **`/sbin/initctl`**:

          # rm /sbin/initctl
          # dpkg-divert --local --rename --remove /sbin/initctl
          

    3. Setup users:

       # passwd root
       # useradd -m -s /bin/bash utilite
       # passwd utilite
       # usermod -a -G adm,cdrom,sudo,dip,plugdev utilite
       

    4. Setup a kernel:

    Now you need to deploy the [kernel we prepare earlier](/?p=1073#toc-deploy-the-tarball “Building a new Linux kernel for your Utilite Computer”) and reboot.

    Choose a role for your system
    —————————–

    1. After you reboot you may find that networking is not working. If you are in a **dhcp** enabled network run **`dhclient`** to get an IP address:

       # dhclient 
       

    2. Upgrade the system to the latest upgrades:

       # apt-get update
       # apt-get -y dist-upgrade
       

    3. Check the available roles

    * On Ubuntu you may want to install **`tasksel`** (already installed on Debian):

          # apt-get install tasksel
          

    * See the available roles on Ubuntu:

          # tasksel --list-tasks
          i server        Basic Ubuntu server
          i openssh-server        OpenSSH server
          u dns-server    DNS server
          u lamp-server   LAMP server
          u mail-server   Mail server
          u postgresql-server     PostgreSQL database
          u print-server  Print server
          u samba-server  Samba file server
          u tomcat-server Tomcat Java server
          u cloud-image   Ubuntu Cloud Image (instance)
          u virt-host     Virtual Machine host
          u ubuntustudio-graphics 2D/3D creation and editing suite
          u ubuntustudio-audio    Audio recording and editing suite
          u edubuntu-desktop-gnome        Edubuntu desktop
          u kubuntu-active        Kubuntu Active
          u kubuntu-desktop       Kubuntu desktop
          u kubuntu-full  Kubuntu full
          u ubuntustudio-font-meta        Large selection of font packages
          u lubuntu-desktop       Lubuntu Desktop
          u lubuntu-core  Lubuntu minimal installation
          u mythbuntu-frontend    Mythbuntu frontend
          u mythbuntu-backend-master      Mythbuntu master backend
          u mythbuntu-backend-slave       Mythbuntu slave backend
          u ubuntustudio-photography      Photograph touchup and editing suite
          u ubuntustudio-publishing       Publishing applications
          u ubuntu-gnome-desktop  Ubuntu GNOME desktop
          u ubuntu-desktop        Ubuntu desktop
          u ubuntu-usb    Ubuntu desktop USB
          u ubuntustudio-video    Video creation and editing suite
          u xubuntu-desktop       Xubuntu desktop
          u edubuntu-dvd-live     Edubuntu live DVD
          u kubuntu-active-live   Kubuntu Active Remix live CD
          u kubuntu-live  Kubuntu live CD
          u kubuntu-dvd-live      Kubuntu live DVD
          u lubuntu-live  Lubuntu live CD
          u ubuntu-gnome-live     Ubuntu GNOME live CD
          u ubuntustudio-dvd-live Ubuntu Studio live DVD
          u ubuntu-live   Ubuntu live CD
          u ubuntu-usb-live       Ubuntu live USB
          u xubuntu-live  Xubuntu live CD
          u manual        Manual package selection
          

    * See the available roles on debian:

          $ tasksel --list-tasks
          i desktop	Debian desktop environment
          u gnome-desktop	GNOME
          u xfce-desktop	Xfce
          u kde-desktop	KDE
          u cinnamon-desktop	Cinnamon
          u mate-desktop	MATE
          i lxde-desktop	LXDE
          u web-server	web server
          u print-server	print server
          u ssh-server	SSH server
          u laptop	laptop
          

    4. Choose a role.

    If you would like a Desktop system, I suggest you choose something light like **lubuntu-desktop** or **lxde-desktop**.

    * Installing **Lubuntu** (Ubuntu):

          # tasksel --task-packages lubuntu-desktop | xargs apt-get -y install
          

    I prefer this method rather than the [TUI](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text-based_user_interface “Text-based User Interface”) of **tasksel**, so as to have better overview and control of the process. Keep an eye on it every now and then, because it will ask you about keyboard-configuration and other questions. Select the default settings if you are unsure.

    * Installing **LXDE Desktop** (Debian):

          # apt-get install task-lxde-desktop network-manager
          

    For Desktop systems it may be a good idea to install **network-manager** as well.

    * Add the **vivante** GPU module on startup:

          # echo vivante >> /etc/modules
          

    After you finish you can reboot your system and start playing.

    References
    ———-
    * https://github.com/umiddelb/armhf/wiki/Installing-Ubuntu-14.04-on-the-utilite-computer-from-scratch
    * https://wiki.debian.org/InstallingDebianOn/CompuLab/PC-Utilite/wheezy

    The Utilite computer comes with an aging Ubuntu 12.04. If you try to upgrade it to to 14.04 or later, you will end up with a broken system because of their dependency, either fully or partially, on the [systemd](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemd “systemd”) init system. The problem is that the stock kernel does not support [cgroups](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cgroups “control groups”) which is a mandatory dependency for **systemd**. Type these commands on your Utilite, to verify the missing feature:

    $ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /boot
    $ /usr/src/linux-kernel/scripts/extract-ikconfig /boot/uImage-cm-fx6 | grep CGROUPS
    # CONFIG_CGROUPS is not set
    

    There is also another important feature: **fhandle**. A **systemd** Linux system without an **fhandle** enabled kernel, will fail to enable the **swap space** during boot.

    Most modern distros, with a few notable [exceptions](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemd#Adoption_and_reception “systemd adoption”), have switched to this new initialization system. So if we want to use a recent version of Ubuntu, Debian or most other distros, we need to recompile the kernel with **cgroups** support.

    Prerequisites
    ————-

    * A standard x86-based PC with Linux installed (I use Ubuntu 15.04 at present). This is going to be our build station.
    * A Utilite ARM Computer. This is our target.

    Prepare the cross-compile toolchain
    ———————————–

    The necessary packages are available on recent Ubuntu releases and Debian unstable.

    First let’s install all necessary and optional packages on our build station:

    $ sudo apt-get -y install build-essential gcc-arm-none-eabi gcc-arm-linux-gnueabi gcc-arm-linux-gnueabihf libncurses5 libncurses5-dev libncursesw5 libncursesw5-dev lzop git u-boot-tools pkg-config
    

    Download the kernel sources
    —————————

    1. You can download the sources from here:

       $ wget https://github.com/utilite-computer/linux-kernel-3.0/archive/master.tar.gz
       

    2. Then extract the tarball and change into the kernel source root:

       $ tar xvzf master.tar.gz
       $ cd linux-kernel-3.0-master/
       

    Building the kernel
    ——————-

    1. Prepare the environment:

       $ export ARCH=arm
       $ export CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf-
       

    2. Prepare the configuration for utilite:

       $ make utilite_defconfig
       

    * Check if **cgroups** and **fhandle** are enabled:

          $ grep CGROUPS .config 
          # CONFIG_CGROUPS is not set
          $ grep FHANDLE .config 
          # CONFIG_FHANDLE is not set
          

    * Since **cgroups** and **fhandle**, are not enabled we need to enter **menuconfig** to enable it:

          $ make menuconfig
          

    Navigate to **General Setup** and go down to **Control Group support**. Press the space bar and you will see an asterisk ([*]). That means the **Control Group support** feature is enabled to be compiled in the kernel. Now do the same with the **open by fhandle syscalls** option. Press **exit** and **Yes** to save your new configuration.

    * Make sure **cgroups** and **fhandle** are now enabled:

          $ grep CGROUPS .config 
          CONFIG_CGROUPS=y
          $ grep FHANDLE .config
          CONFIG_FHANDLE=y
          

    Good. Let’s proceed with the build.

    3. Build the kernel and prepare a U-boot compatible image (**uImage**):

       $ make
       $ make uImage
       

    This will take some time depending on how powerful your build station is. Go for coffee, watch some movie, read a [comic](https://xkcd.com/303/ “XKCD: Compiling”)…

    Prepare the tarball
    ——————-

    Now we need to package the kernel and modules together.

    1. Install the modules in the **rootfs** directory:

       $ mkdir -p rootfs/boot
       $ INSTALL_MOD_PATH=./rootfs make modules_install
      

    Ignore this error after `make modules_install`:

    “`
    make[1]: *** No rule to make target ‘rootfs/lib/firmware/./’, needed by ‘rootfs/lib/firmware/ti_3410.fw’. Stop.
    Makefile:1130: recipe for target ‘_modinst_post’ failed
    make: *** [_modinst_post] Error 2
    “`

    2. Copy the image and prepare the tarball:

       $ cp arch/arm/boot/uImage rootfs/boot/uImage-cm-fx6
       $ cp arch/arm/boot/zImage rootfs/boot/zImage-cm-fx6
       $ cd rootfs
       $ tar cvzf ../linux-utilite-kernel-3.0.tar.gz .
       $ cd ..
       

    Deploy the tarball
    ——————

    Now we are ready to deploy the kernel to the Utilite computer.

    1. Copy the kernel to the Utilite computer:

       $ scp linux-utilite-kernel-3.0.tar.gz utilite@utilite-desktop:
       

    2. Now connect to the Utilite and mount the boot partition:

       $ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /boot
       

    3. Backup the existing files and remove the old image and modules:

       $ tar cvzf linux-utilite-original-kernel.tar.gz /boot/ /lib/modules/3.0.35-cm-fx6-6.3/
       $ sudo rm /boot/uImage-cm-fx6 
       $ sudo rm -fr /lib/modules/3.0.35-cm-fx6-6.3
       

    If something goes wrong you can boot from a microSD or a USB drive and restore the original kernel.

    4. Deploy the kernel:

    > ***Note***
    > *Make sure the **/boot** directory is mounted on the **/dev/sda1** filesystem before running the following command.*

       $ sudo tar xvzf linux-utilite-kernel-3.0.tar.gz -C /
       $ sudo chown -R root:root /lib/modules/3.0.35-cm-fx6-6.4
       $ sudo depmod 3.0.35-cm-fx6-6.4
       

    The errors caused by **tar** are produced because FAT filesystem like **/dev/sda1**, do not support the ownership attribute. You can safely ignore them. **`chown`** is used to set the owneship of the modules to the root user, since the tarball was packaged under a normal user account and inherited its permissions.

    You can now reboot the Utilite and see if everything works as expected. If not, you can boot with a microSD or a USB flash drive and restore the original kernel and modules.

    After we have successfully prepared a **cgroups** enabled kernel, we can move on to setup a new [Ubuntu or Debian](/?p=1087 “Setup a new Ubuntu or Debian system on the Utilite”) system on the Utilite.

    References
    ———-
    * [1] http://www.compulab.co.il/utilite-computer/wiki/index.php/Utilite_Linux_Kernel_3.0

    I have mentioned in an [earlier post](/?p=983 “Adding USB boot support on the Utilite nettop”) that I am an owner of a [Utilite ARM computer](http://www.compulab.co.il/utilite-computer/web/utilite-overview “Utilite”). One of the issues I experienced with the default setup, is that there is no [swap partition](https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SwapFaq “Swap FAQ”). That causes Firefox some memory hungry applications to perform badly.

    Check for yourself, if **swap** is activated on your machine:

    free
                total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
    Mem:       2006476     263752    1742724      20100      21428     107388
    -/+ buffers/cache:     134936    1871540
    Swap:            0          0          0
    

    As you can see in the output, no swap space is used. So we are going to see how we can resize a linux ext2/ext3/ext4 partition to make space for a swap partition. We are then going to create a new swap partition and activate it on boot.

    Prerequisites
    ————-

    * Prepare a bootable microSD or USB drive. You can use the [Utilite Linux Installer](http://compulab.co.il/utilite-computer/wiki/index.php/Utilite_Linux_Installer) for this, or install the official [Utilite Linux Image](http://compulab.co.il/utilite-computer/wiki/index.php/Utilite_Linux_Image) on a removable device.

    Checking the current setup
    ————————–

    After you boot using a removable medium, you can follow this procedure to check the current setup:

    $ sudo fdisk -l /dev/sda
    
    Disk /dev/sda: 29.8 GiB, 32017047552 bytes, 62533296 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    Disklabel type: dos
    Disk identifier: 0xa5161f73
    
    Device     Boot  Start      End  Sectors  Size Id Type
    /dev/sda1  *      2048   206847   204800  100M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
    /dev/sda2       206848 62533295 62326448 29.7G 83 Linux
    

    * **`START_SECTOR`** = 206848
    * **`END_SECTOR`** = 62533295
    * **`TOTAL_SECTORS`** = 62326448

    As you can see, the main root partition (**sda2**) has a size of **29.7GB**. We will reduce it to **28**GB and you the rest of the space (**1.7GB**) for swap. That should be more than enough.

    Now in order to avoid tedious calculations, and make sure the filesystem on **sda2** takes all available space on the partition we are going to use this trick:

    * Resize the **sda2** filesystem to **27GB**.
    * Resize the **sda2** partition to **28GB**.
    * Resize the **sda2** filesystem to all available space of the **sda2** partition (**28GB**).

    Temporarily resize **sda2**
    —————————

    1. First force check the filesystem for errors:

       $ sudo e2fsck -f /dev/sda2
       

    If it finishes without errors move to the next step

    2. Resize the filesystem to **27GB**:

      $ sudo resize2fs /dev/sda2 27G
      

    3. Verify the result:

       $ sudo dumpe2fs  /dev/sda2 | grep Block | head -2
       dumpe2fs 1.42.12 (29-Aug-2014)
       Block count:              7077888
       Block size:               4096
    
       $ echo '(7077888 * 4096)/1024/1024/1024' | bc -l
       27.00000000000000000000
       

    Exactly **27GB**.

    Resize the **sda2** partition
    —————————–

    To resize the **sda2** partition we will delete it temporarily and recreate it using the same **`START_SECTOR`** but a different **`END_SECTOR`**.

    1. To calculate the new end sector you can use this formula:

    `NEW_END_SECTOR = START_SECTOR + TOTAL_SECTORS * 28 / 29.7`

       $ echo "206848+62326448*28/29.7" | bc -l
       58965788.87542087542087542087
       

    We can round up the **`NEW_END_SECTOR`** to **58965789**.

    2. Use **fdisk** to resize the partition:

    * Delete the **sda2** partition:

          $ sudo fdisk /dev/sda
          Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
          Be careful before using the write command.
    
    
          Command (m for help): d
          Partition number (1,2, default 2): 2
    
          Partition 2 has been deleted.
          

    Verify that **sda2** is deleted:

          Command (m for help): p
          Disk /dev/sda: 29,8 GiB, 32017047552 bytes, 62533296 sectors
          Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
          Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
          I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
          Disklabel type: dos
          Disk identifier: 0xa5161f73
    
          Device     Boot Start    End Sectors  Size Id Type
          /dev/sda1  *     2048 206847  204800  100M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
          

    It is deleted, but not really until you issue the **w**rite command.

    * Create a smaller **sda2** partition:

          Command (m for help): n
          Partition type
             p   primary (1 primary, 0 extended, 3 free)
             e   extended (container for logical partitions)
          Select (default p): p
          Partition number (2-4, default 2): 
          First sector (206848-62533295, default 206848): 
          Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (206848-62533295, default 62533295): 58965789
    
          Created a new partition 2 of type 'Linux' and of size 28 GiB.      
          

    For the end sector we use the value of the **`NEW_END_SECTOR`** we have calculated earlier. Now let’s verify the new partition:

          Command (m for help): p
          Disk /dev/sda: 29,8 GiB, 32017047552 bytes, 62533296 sectors
          Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
          Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
          I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
          Disklabel type: dos
          Disk identifier: 0xa5161f73
    
          Device     Boot  Start      End  Sectors  Size Id Type
          /dev/sda1  *      2048   206847   204800  100M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
          /dev/sda2       206848 58965789 58758942   28G 83 Linux
          

    * Create a new partition of type **swap**:

          Command (m for help): n
          Partition type
             p   primary (2 primary, 0 extended, 2 free)
             e   extended (container for logical partitions)
          Select (default p): p
          Partition number (3,4, default 3): 
          First sector (58965790-62533295, default 58966016): 
          Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (58966016-62533295, default 62533295): 
    
          Created a new partition 3 of type 'Linux' and of size 1,7 GiB.
    
          Command (m for help): t
          Partition number (1-3, default 3): 3
          Partition type (type L to list all types): 82
    
          Changed type of partition 'Linux' to 'Linux swap / Solaris'.
          

    Verify that the new partition is created:

          Command (m for help): p
          Disk /dev/sda: 29,8 GiB, 32017047552 bytes, 62533296 sectors
          Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
          Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
          I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
          Disklabel type: dos
          Disk identifier: 0xa5161f73
    
          Device     Boot    Start      End  Sectors  Size Id Type
          /dev/sda1  *        2048   206847   204800  100M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
          /dev/sda2         206848 58965789 58758942   28G 83 Linux
          /dev/sda3       58966016 62533295  3567280  1,7G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
          

    Seems OK.

    * Write changes and exit:

          Command (m for help): w
          The partition table has been altered.
          Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
          

    Remember that nothing is changed unless you issue the **w**rite command. If you make a mistake, just hit Ctrl+c and no harm done.

    3. Resize the filesystem to the full size of the partition:

    * Force check the filesystem

          $ sudo e2fsck -f /dev/sda2
          

    * Resize the filesystem to occupy all the available space in the partition:

          $ sudo resize2fs /dev/sda2
          

    Running **`resize2fs`** without a size definition, extends the size of the filesystem to the size of the partition.

    * Verify the new filesystem size:

          $ sudo dumpe2fs  /dev/sda2 | grep Block | head -2
          dumpe2fs 1.42.13 (17-May-2015)
          Block count:              7344867
          Block size:               4096
          

    The size in bytes is `BLOCK_COUNT * BLOCK_SIZE` i.e. 7344867 * 4096 = 30084575232. The size in GB is:

          $ echo '(7344867 * 4096)/1024/1024/1024' | bc -l
          28.01844406127929687500
          

    Restart into your internal drive
    ——————————–

    At this point we need to restart into the Operating System installed on the internal SATA device and check if everything works:

    $ sudo fdisk -l /dev/sda
    Disk /dev/sda: 29,8 GiB, 32017047552 bytes, 62533296 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    Disklabel type: dos
    Disk identifier: 0xa5161f73
    
    Device     Boot    Start      End  Sectors  Size Id Type
    /dev/sda1  *        2048   206847   204800  100M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
    /dev/sda2         206848 58965789 58758942   28G 83 Linux
    /dev/sda3       58966016 62533295  3567280  1,7G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
    

    The partition table appears to be correct. But we haven’t formatted the swap partition yet:

    $ free
                total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
    Mem:       2006476     264380    1742096      20100      21568     107800
    -/+ buffers/cache:     135012    1871464
    Swap:            0          0          0
    

    We need to format the swap partition before we can use it.

    Setup the swap partition
    ————————

    1. Format the swap partition:

       $ sudo mkswap /dev/sda3
       mkswap: /dev/sda3: warning: wiping old swap signature.
       Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 1,7 GiB (1826443264 bytes)
       no label, UUID=fa1e99ff-a9ab-4fd7-ba81-e5020f4e604b
       

    Take a note of the UUID: fa1e99ff-a9ab-4fd7-ba81-e5020f4e604b

    2. Activate swap:

       $ sudo swapon /dev/sda3
       

    3. Verify swap (in human readable form this time):

       $ free -m
                total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
    Mem:          1959        259       1700         19         21        105
    -/+ buffers/cache:        132       1826
    Swap:         1741          0       1741
       

    So we have a total of 1741MB of swap space.

    4. Setup persistent swap.

    To have swap activated persistently across reboots, we need to set it up in ***/etc/fstab***:

       # echo 'UUID="fa1e99ff-a9ab-4fd7-ba81-e5020f4e604b" none swap defaults 0 0' >> /etc/fstab
       

    You need to run the above command as root.

    Now after you reboot you can check with **`free`** to see if the swap space is activated.

    Yet another practical packaging session, this ine on how to build a Debian package from scratch. This one too is based on the packaging tutorial and practical sessions of [Lucas Nussbaum](http://www.lucas-nussbaum.net/).

    We are going to download the source code of gnujump from upstream, and use the [pbuilder](https://pbuilder.alioth.debian.org/ “Personal Builder”) tool to package it. The advantages of **pbuider** is that it creates a minimal [chroot jail](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chroot “chroot”) that helps you track any dependencies you might forgot to specify in ***debian/control***. Also it gives you the opportunity to build Debian packages on Ubuntu and vice-versa. You can also build packages for releases other than your own.

    Prerequisites
    ————-

    * A recent Debian or Ubuntu system.

    Preparation of the **pbuilder** jail
    ————————————

    Install **pbuilder** and relevant packages:

    $ sudo apt-get -y install pbuilder debootstrap devscripts packaging-dev debian-keyring ubuntu-archive-keyring
    

    **NOTE: use *ubuntu-keyring* instead of *ubuntu-archive-keyring* if your build station is Ubuntu**

    Prepare the target environment. For example for Ubuntu trusty use can use this setup:

    $ sudo pbuilder create --debootstrapopts --variant=buildd --mirror http://cy.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu --distribution trusty --architecture amd64 --components main --debbuildopts -mJohn Doe \<john.doe@example.net\>
    

    Prepare the new package
    ————————

    1. Download the source:

       $ wget https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gnujump/gnujump-1.0.8.tar.gz
       

    2. Extract the archive and change into the source tree:

       $ tar xvzf gnujump-1.0.8.tar.gz
       $ cd gnujump-1.0.8/
       

    Prepare for debian packaging
    —————————-

    1. We are going to use the **`dh_make`** utility to prepare the ***debian*** directory and all the necessary files:

       $ DEBFULLNAME="John Doe" DEBEMAIL="john.doe@example.net" dh_make -s -y --createorig
       

    Check if all necessary files are there:

       $ find debian/
       debian/
       debian/compat
       debian/manpage.1.ex
       debian/preinst.ex
       debian/rules
       debian/gnujump.default.ex
       debian/README.Debian
       debian/copyright
       debian/gnujump.cron.d.ex
       debian/gnujump.doc-base.EX
       debian/changelog
       debian/README.source
       debian/control
       debian/menu.ex
       debian/manpage.sgml.ex
       debian/docs
       debian/init.d.ex
       debian/source
       debian/source/format
       debian/watch.ex
       debian/postrm.ex
       debian/prerm.ex
       debian/manpage.xml.ex
       debian/postinst.ex
       

    Now Check the contents of the ***debian/changelog***, ***debian/rules*** and ***debian/control*** files.

    2. We will need to make some changes in the ***debian/control*** file:

       Source: gnujump
       Section: games
       Priority: optional
       Maintainer: John Doe 
       Build-Depends: debhelper (>= 9), autotools-dev, libsdl1.2-dev, libsdl-image1.2-dev, libsdl-mixer1.2-dev
       Standards-Version: 3.9.5
       Homepage: http://gnujump.es.gnu.org
       ...
       

    The **libsdl1.2-dev**, **libsdl-image1.2-dev** and **libsdl-mixer1.2-dev** have been discovered by repeatedly compiling and failing until you get it right. The you can use the **`apt-cache search`** and **`apt-file search`** commands to discover the packages corresponding to the missing dependencies.

    3. Edit the ***debian/rules*** file to look like this:

    “`
    DH_VERBOSE = 1

    DPKG_EXPORT_BUILDFLAGS = 1
    include /usr/share/dpkg/default.mk

    export DEB_BUILD_MAINT_OPTIONS = hardening=+all

    export DEB_CFLAGS_MAINT_APPEND = -Wall -pedantic
    export DEB_LDFLAGS_MAINT_APPEND = -Wl,–as-needed

    %:
    dh $@ –with autotools-dev

    CFLAGS += -lm
    “`

    4. Edit the ***debian/changelog***, with **`dch -e`**, to look like this:

    “`
    gnujump (1.0.8-1) unstable; urgency=low

    * Initial release

    — John Doe Mon, 22 Jun 2015 17:41:22 +0300
    “`

    Build the package
    —————–

    Run this command from the source tree:

    $ pdebuild
    

    Give your password when asked. **`pdebuild`** will download and install all dependencies in the **pbuilder** jail and then build the package. Changes will be lost from the jail, the next time you use it but if all goes well, you should see these files under ***/var/cache/pbuilder/result***:

    $ ls -la /var/cache/pbuilder/result/
    total 5776
    drwxr-xr-x 2 root      root         4096 Ιούν 22 17:52 .
    drwxr-xr-x 9 root      root         4096 Ιούν 22 11:26 ..
    -rw-r--r-- 1 john john    1449 Ιούν 22 17:52 gnujump_1.0.8-1_amd64.changes
    -rw-r--r-- 1 john john 1560574 Ιούν 22 17:52 gnujump_1.0.8-1_amd64.deb
    -rw-rw-r-- 1 john john    9228 Ιούν 22 17:52 gnujump_1.0.8-1.debian.tar.xz
    -rw-rw-r-- 1 john john     885 Ιούν 22 17:52 gnujump_1.0.8-1.dsc
    -rw-rw-r-- 1 john john 2508641 Ιούλ 24  2012 gnujump_1.0.8.orig.tar.gz
    -rw-rw-r-- 1 john john 1814056 Ιούν 22 17:41 gnujump_1.0.8.orig.tar.xz
    

    Checking the result
    ——————-

    1. View the information related to the package file:

       $ dpkg -I /var/cache/pbuilder/result/gnujump_1.0.8-1_amd64.deb
        new debian package, version 2.0.
        size 1560574 bytes: control archive=5550 bytes.
            419 bytes,    11 lines      control              
          18390 bytes,   233 lines      md5sums              
        Package: gnujump
        Version: 1.0.8-1
        Architecture: amd64
        Maintainer: John Doe 
        Installed-Size: 2355
        Depends: libc6 (>= 2.14), libgl1-mesa-glx | libgl1, libsdl-image1.2 (>= 1.2.10), libsdl-mixer1.2, libsdl1.2debian (>= 1.2.11)
        Section: games
        Priority: optional
        Homepage: http://gnujump.es.gnu.org
        Description: <insert up to 60 chars description>
         <insert long description, indented with spaces>
       

    As you can see our work is not finished. We need to add a description in ***debian/control*** and rebuild it.

    2. Check the contents of the package file:

       $ dpkg -I /var/cache/pbuilder/result/gnujump_1.0.8-1_amd64.deb
       

    Install the package
    ——————-

    Now we can install the package:

    $ sudo dpkg -i /var/cache/pbuilder/result/gnujump_1.0.8-1_amd64.deb
    

    Now run the **`gnujump`** software and check if it works.

    This is not the whole story of course. You have to check the package against [Lintian](https://lintian.debian.org/ “Lintian Standards Checker”) to see if it complies with the [Debian Policy](https://www.debian.org/doc/debian-policy/ “Debian Policy”). And if it’s not compliant, you may need to use [Quilt](https://wiki.debian.org/UsingQuilt “Quilt Patch Management”) to patch it. You will need to fill ***debian/watch*** so you can track updates on the upstream with **`uscan`**. The work of a Debian packager never ends.

    References
    ———-
    * [1] https://wiki.ubuntu.com/PbuilderHowto
    * [2] https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/packaging-tutorial/packaging-tutorial.en.pdf

    This guide is a practical session on how to modify an existing debian package, when the version is not included in the current release. It is based on the excellent packaging tutorial and practical sessions of [Lucas Nussbaum](http://www.lucas-nussbaum.net/ “Lucas Nussbaum website”).

    We are going to download a source deb package, build it without modifications, modify it, patch it, rebuild it and in the end, install it in our system.

    Prerequisites
    ————-

    * A recent Debian or Ubuntu system.

    Installation of development packages
    ————————————

    $ sudo apt-get -y install build-essential debhelper devscripts packaging-dev debian-keyring
    

    Get the source from the debian repos
    ————————————

    $ dget http://cdn.debian.net/debian/pool/main/g/grep/grep_2.21-1.dsc
    

    After that you should see these files under the current directory:

    $ ls
    grep_2.21-1.debian.tar.bz2  grep_2.21-1.dsc  grep_2.21.orig.tar.xz
    

    * **grep_2.21-1.dsc**: Package’s debian source control file.
    * **grep_2.21.orig.tar.xz**: Original source.
    * **grep_2.21-1.debian.tar.bz2**: Debian files and patches.

    Unpack the source
    —————–

    The `dpkg-source` file will unpack the original and debian tarballs and apply the debian patches, if available.

    $ dpkg-source -x grep_2.21-1.dsc
    

    Download build dependencies
    —————————

    $ sudo apt-get -y build-dep grep
    

    Build the unmodified package
    —————————-

    Change into the source tree and run `debuild`. We are using the `-us` and `-uc` flags to suppress warnings about signing.

    $ cd grep-2.21/
    $ debuild -us -uc
    

    It doesn’t take long before this package is build. In the parent directory you will find three more files:

    * **grep_2.21-1_amd64.deb**: the newly created deb package file.
    * **grep_2.21-1_amd64.build**: the build log. You can use this to check for errors or warnings.
    * **grep_2.21-1_amd64.changes**: Debian applied changes.

    Modify the package
    ——————

    I suggest you do not touch the source, unless you fancy spending your day debugging. We will simply make some modifications on the ***debian/changelog*** and ***debian/rules*** files.

    1. Add the `–with-gnu-ld` flag in the **DEB_CONFIGURE_EXTRA_FLAGS** line of the ***debian/rules*** file.

    The `–with-gnu-ld` is a trivial change and shouldn’t break anything during build. Find this line:

    “`
    DEB_CONFIGURE_EXTRA_FLAGS += –without-included-regex
    “`

    And change it to this:

       DEB_CONFIGURE_EXTRA_FLAGS += --without-included-regex --with-gnu-ld
       

    2. Update the ***changelog*** file.

    We are going to use the `dch` utility which is simply a wrapper around your default editor, with changelog syntax checking. Run the following command in the source tree:

       $ DEBFULLNAME="John Doe" DEBEMAIL="john.doe@example.net" dch -i
       

    Make the following changes (in bold) the ***debian/changelog*** file:

       grep (2.21-1ubuntu1) experimental; urgency=low
    
         * Support for GNU ld linker.
       
        -- John Doe   Fri, 19 Jun 2015 13:01:37 +0300
       

    Note how the name and email of the patcher have been automatically inserted in the changelog entry. That’s because we defined the **DEBFULLNAME** and **DEBEMAIL** variables in the shell that runs `dch`.

    Rebuild the modified package
    —————————-

    $ debuild -us -uc
    

    You will see the following error:

    “`
    dpkg-source: error: aborting due to unexpected upstream changes, see /tmp/grep_2.21-1ubuntu1.diff.eYCcPk
    dpkg-source: info: you can integrate the local changes with dpkg-source –commit
    dpkg-buildpackage: error: dpkg-source -b grep-2.21 gave error exit status 2
    debuild: fatal error at line 1376:
    “`

    The above error happens because the `–with-gnu-ld` flag makes changes to the upstream source and this is against the Debian policy.

    Apply patches for Policy compliance
    ———————————–

    $ cp /tmp/grep_2.21-1ubuntu1.diff.eYCcPk debian/patches/90-enable-gnu-ld.patch
    $ echo 90-enable-gnu-ld.patch >> debian/patches/series
    

    It is considered a good practice to edit the patch, add a description and a short summary and fill the headers related to the [Patch Tagging Guidelines](http://dep.debian.net/deps/dep3/ “Patch Tagging Guidelines”).

    This method is only a workaround. The correct way to deal with patches is [Quilt](https://pkg-perl.alioth.debian.org/howto/quilt.html “Quilt Howto”).

    Final rebuild of the modified package
    ————————————-

    $ debuild -us -uc
    

    You will see five additional files in the parent directory:

    * **grep_2.21-1ubuntu1_amd64.deb**: the new deb package file.
    * **grep_2.21-1ubuntu1.debian.tar.bz2**: the new **debian** directory tarball.
    * **grep_2.21-1ubuntu1.dsc**: the new debian source control file.
    * **grep_2.21-1ubuntu1_amd64.build**: the build log.
    * **grep_2.21-1ubuntu1_amd64.changes**: the changes file.

    Checking the differences between original and new
    ————————————————-

    The following commands will find the differences in the **debian source control** and **changes** files:

    $ diff ../*.changes
    $ diff ../*dsc
    

    Install the new package
    ———————–

    $ sudo debi
    

    Check if grep is the correct version:

    $ grep --version
    grep (GNU grep) 2.21
    Copyright (C) 2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later .
    This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
    There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
    
    Written by Mike Haertel and others, see .
    

    All done. If you have reached so far congratulations! You have successfully rebuilt a Debian package.

    References:
    ———–
    * [1] http://www.lucas-nussbaum.net/
    * [2] https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/packaging-tutorial/packaging-tutorial.en.pdf
    * [3] http://dep.debian.net/deps/dep3/