Setting up an LDAP directory with a Fusiondirectory frontend

LDAP/Fusiondirectory setup

In this guide we will be setting up LDAP (openldap) along with the FusionDirectory web management tool.

Preparations

  • Install Debian jessie (Ubuntu 16.04 should work too) on your server or VM
  • Setup the DNS records in your DNS servers:

    ldap.example.com.           3599    IN      A       1.1.1.1
    

    NOTE: replace 1.1.1.1 with you actual internal or external IP

  • Allow ssh and web services on firewall:

    apt -y install ufw
    ufw allow 22/tcp
    ufw allow 80/tcp
    ufw allow 443/tcp
    ufw enable
    

    NOTE: It may be a good idea to change the default ssh port from 22 to something less predictable

Setup LDAP

  • Setup ldap.example.com in /etc/hosts:

    127.0.2.1 ldap.example.com ldap
    

  • Install OpenLDAP and FusionDirectory
    apt -y install slapd
    

    Enter and verify the administrator password for slapd.

  • Create An Internal Certificate Authority for Example LTD:

    • First install gnutls-bin:
      apt -y install gnutls-bin
      
    • Create the key for the internal CA for example.com:
      certtool --generate-privkey --outfile example.com-rootCA.key
      
    • Create a certificate for our internal CA:
certtool --generate-self-signed --load-privkey example.com-rootCA.key --outfile example.com-rootCA.crt
Generating a self signed certificate...
Please enter the details of the certificate's distinguished name. Just press enter to ignore a field.
Common name: Example LTD Internal ROOT CA
UID: 
Organizational unit name: IT
Organization name: Example LTD
Locality name: Limassol
State or province name: Limassol
Country name (2 chars): CY
Enter the subject's domain component (DC): 
This field should not be used in new certificates.
E-mail: admins@example.com
Enter the certificate's serial number in decimal (default: 6295758616856773074): 
The certificate will expire in (days): 7300

Activation/Expiration time. The certificate will expire in (days): 7300

Extensions. Does the certificate belong to an authority? (y/N): y Path length constraint (decimal, -1 for no constraint): -1 Is this a TLS web client certificate? (y/N): Will the certificate be used for IPsec IKE operations? (y/N): Is this a TLS web server certificate? (y/N): Enter a dnsName of the subject of the certificate: Enter a URI of the subject of the certificate: Enter the IP address of the subject of the certificate: Enter the e-mail of the subject of the certificate: Will the certificate be used to sign other certificates? (y/N): y Will the certificate be used to sign CRLs? (y/N): Will the certificate be used to sign code? (y/N): Will the certificate be used to sign OCSP requests? (y/N): Will the certificate be used for time stamping? (y/N): Enter the URI of the CRL distribution point: X.509 Certificate Information: Version: 3 Serial Number (hex): 575f071b0d5a41d2 Validity: Not Before: Mon Jun 13 19:19:27 UTC 2016 Not After: Sun Jun 08 19:20:00 UTC 2036 Subject: CN=Example LTD Internal ROOT CA,OU=IT,O=Example LTD,L=Limassol,ST=Limassol,C=CY,EMAIL=admins@example.com Subject Public Key Algorithm: RSA Algorithm Security Level: Medium (2048 bits) Modulus (bits 2048): 00:c0:75:c8:02:05:d0:0c:67:af:ac:0c:80:53:bf:cd a3:80:76:cf:3e:14:19:99:5c:24:b4:fc:b0:42:8d:5a 03:5d:04:a5:85:c7:fe:e3:d4:30:6c:4c:26:90:76:c5 3e:a0:dc:a7:53:a7:eb:13:60:78:44:b3:0a:b2:77:0c 46:19:96:ea:d2:46:82:9c:11:2c:a5:e2:a1:57:38:f4 8e:4d:74:4f:f9:41:dd:11:f4:c2:f5:9f:b7:9a:93:7d a7:f8:f3:dd:2e:08:6a:25:75:79:f3:63:e5:09:1f:bd 6a:38:45:85:f0:63:54:c0:08:68:41:15:66:a4:e3:84 49:7e:e5:c5:c7:6c:d3:c7:be:d5:5a:df:1a:1d:55:f8 35:73:bb:e3:ea:f7:66:af:d9:09:72:ca:17:5f:80:09 99:6a:49:e3:8b:f2:72:56:ac:f8:ba:60:49:d5:80:2a 07:e6:17:88:86:e4:3c:89:cd:af:2b:66:a1:af:53:f4 66:21:30:a3:22:af:a9:11:6e:98:e0:f7:6d:ef:8a:32 e9:0b:a4:82:7b:7b:db:2d:90:8e:bd:e4:54:04:a4:52 e8:cf:f6:2e:9b:97:46:ab:cb:38:06:23:33:db:42:0c 25:41:5a:d7:02:15:07:c6:e8:86:0b:a6:d7:7d:81:16 bd Exponent (bits 24): 01:00:01 Extensions: Basic Constraints (critical): Certificate Authority (CA): TRUE Key Purpose (not critical): Time stamping. Key Usage (critical): Certificate signing. Subject Key Identifier (not critical): 7a596f6dea4080e89c9e78a698d7126cd63dafa7 Other Information: Public Key ID: 7a596f6dea4080e89c9e78a698d7126cd63dafa7 Public key's random art: +--[ RSA 2048]----+ | | | . . | | . . . | | o . . | | . .+. S o | | =o..o. + . . | | o.o= .oo . o o | | oo+. .o o o | |o... E+ .o | +-----------------+

Is the above information ok? (y/N): y

Signing certificate...
  • Add the Example LTD Internal ROOT CA as trusted in ca-certificates:

    mkdir /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra
    cp example.com-rootCA.crt /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra
    dpkg-reconfigure ca-certificates
    

    Add the extra/example.com-rootCA.crt CA as a trusted CA.

  • Configure slapd:

    dpkg-reconfigure slapd
    
    • Omit OpenLDAP server configuration? No
    • DNS domain name: example.com
    • Organization name: Example LTD
    • Administrator password: ***************
    • Verify password: *************
    • Database backend to use: MDB
    • Do you want the database to be removed when slapd is purged? No
    • Move old database? Yes
    • Allow LDAPv2 protocol? No
  • Configure TLS on LDAP:
    • Create a key for ldap.example.com:
      certtool --generate-privkey --outfile ldap.example.com.key
      Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key...
      
    • Create a certificate for ldap.example.com:
      certtool --generate-certificate --load-privkey ldap.example.com.key --outfile ldap.example.com.crt --load-ca-certificate example.com-rootCA.crt --load-ca-privkey example.com-rootCA.key
      Generating a signed certificate...
      Please enter the details of the certificate's distinguished name. Just press enter to ignore a field.
      Common name: ldap.example.com
      UID: 
      Organizational unit name: IT
      Organization name: Example LTD
      Locality name: Limassol
      State or province name: Limassol
      Country name (2 chars): CY
      Enter the subject's domain component (DC): 
      This field should not be used in new certificates.
      E-mail: admins@example.com
      Enter the certificate's serial number in decimal (default: 6295762607454361711):

      Activation/Expiration time. The certificate will expire in (days):
      3650

      Extensions. Does the certificate belong to an authority? (y/N): Is this a TLS web client certificate? (y/N): Will the certificate be used for IPsec IKE operations? (y/N): Is this a TLS web server certificate? (y/N): Enter a dnsName of the subject of the certificate: Enter a URI of the subject of the certificate: Enter the IP address of the subject of the certificate: Enter the e-mail of the subject of the certificate: Will the certificate be used for signing (required for TLS)? (Y/n): Will the certificate be used for encryption (not required for TLS)? (Y/n): X.509 Certificate Information: Version: 3 Serial Number (hex): 575f0abc2f81186f Validity: Not Before: Mon Jun 13 19:35:45 UTC 2016 Not After: Thu Jun 11 19:36:29 UTC 2026 Subject: CN=ldap.example.com,OU=IT,O=Example LTD,L=Limassol,ST=Limassol,C=CY,EMAIL=admins@example.com Subject Public Key Algorithm: RSA Algorithm Security Level: Medium (2048 bits) Modulus (bits 2048): 00:d0:15:8e:02:90:5f:4a:9f:90:ea:1e:35:e6:4b:eb a9:8c:e5:bf:68:ec:83:0e:49:5b:d1:f0:08:4b:ac:b0 31:d2:e0:a7:eb:18:d3:ee:b8:38:b7:c4:0a:cc:97:cc b6:ac:2d:29:c8:a8:c4:7c:cc:f1:36:5a:e9:6b:52:f5 1e:e5:4f:90:67:34:1f:8c:a8:17:72:ee:40:87:ba:ae 8b:f8:4f:f8:be:51:ee:ea:d5:e4:17:63:79:22:41:c0 19:43:33:55:bb:46:80:5c:b8:16:18:fa:fb:17:58:c2 ed:d2:14:10:3b:57:5d:de:7f:29:ab:66:c2:81:87:05 f7:b7:27:78:a9:c0:8e:4f:1c:3f:66:6f:dd:43:26:9f 84:59:fb:c7:21:3c:62:4f:8d:4a:25:ab:7e:f0:5f:7e df:97:f7:79:f8:c7:2d:c8:5a:7a:de:ea:5b:c7:bd:e9 12:17:56:d3:47:ff:eb:fa:b5:6f:d9:56:8f:c7:e8:7a 46:92:75:cc:ff:de:0e:88:49:7d:d7:dd:6e:8d:3f:57 fa:0a:7a:3b:80:ec:0e:10:dd:70:d5:9a:8d:91:ce:72 44:06:21:d2:9d:e9:b8:91:13:68:4c:fc:e2:bb:4d:a8 97:ed:e9:a4:98:5d:e7:c0:ef:3e:9d:30:28:de:bd:10 01 Exponent (bits 24): 01:00:01 Extensions: Basic Constraints (critical): Certificate Authority (CA): FALSE Key Usage (critical): Digital signature. Key encipherment. Subject Key Identifier (not critical): 6d8a173de01efa11a892dda76ccd7abc609a2707 Authority Key Identifier (not critical): 7a596f6dea408aa89c9e78a698d7126cd63dafa7 Other Information: Public Key ID: 6d8a173de01efa00a892dda67ccd7abc609a2707 Public key's random art: +--[ RSA 2048]----+ | | | | | . | | . + | | A = | | +Y= . | | oo+kk+ | | iii==o* | | .=B**o. | +-----------------+

      Is the above information ok? (y/N): y

      Signing certificate...
    • Enable LDAPS in /etc/default/slapd:
      SLAPD_SERVICES="ldap:/// ldapi:/// ldaps:///"
      
    • Copy the ldap.example.com certficate and apply permissions
      mkdir /etc/ldap/ssl
      cp ldap.example.com.crt /etc/ldap/ssl
      cp ldap.example.com.key /etc/ldap/ssl
      chown -R openldap:openldap /etc/ldap/ssl    /
      
    • Create an olcSSL.ldif file:

      “`
      mkdir /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/
      cd /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/<br />
      cat > olcSSL.ldif < < EOF
      dn: cn=config
      changetype: modify
      add: olcTLSCACertificateFile</p></li>
      </ul></li>
      </ul>

      <h2>olcTLSCACertificateFile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt</h2>

      <p>add: olcTLSCertificateKeyFile

      <h2>olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.key</h2>

      add: olcTLSCertificateFile
      olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.crt
      EOF
      “`

      * Import the TLS configuration:
      
          ```
      

      ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f olcSSL.ldif
      “`

          Verify with:
      
          </pre><pre>
      

      slapcat -n0 | grep -i tls
      olcTLSCACertificateFile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
      olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.crt
      olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.key

      * Restart and verify *slapd*:
      
          <pre>
      

      systemctl restart slapd
      netstat -lnptu | grep slapd
      tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:636 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 27665/slapd
      tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:389 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 27665/slapd
      tcp6 0 0 :::636 :::* LISTEN 27665/slapd
      tcp6 0 0 :::389 :::* LISTEN 27665/slapd

      Setup Apache

      • Install Apache with PHP:
        apt -y install apache2 libapache2-mod-php5 php5-ldap php5-mcrypt php5-intl php-pear
        

      Setup Let’s Encrypt:

      NOTE: this step is only necessary if you have a public facing ldap.example.com service

      • Setup Debian jessie backports:

        “`
        cat >> /etc/apt/sources.list < < EOF</p></li>
        </ul>

        <h1>jessie backports</h1>

        <p>deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main
        deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main
        EOF
        “`

        • Run apt update
        • Install Let’s Encrypt utility, certbot:

          apt -y install python-certbot-apache -t jessie-backports
          

        • Generate a certificate for all the domain ldap.example.com:
          certbot run -d ldap.example.com
          

          In the TUI add the admins@example.com email and agree to the ToS. Use 000-default.conf for now.

        • Download and trust all Let’s Encrypt Root and Intermediate CA certificates:

          wget https://letsencrypt.org/certs/isrgrootx1.pem
          for i in {1..4}; do wget https://letsencrypt.org/certs/lets-encrypt-x$i-cross-signed.pem; done
          cp *.pem /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra/
          for f in *.pem; do cp -- "$f" "/usr/share/ca-certificates/extra/${f%.pem}.crt"; done
          dpkg-reconfigure ca-certificates # Select all the newlly added CA certs
          

        Setup FusionDirectory

        • Setup Fusiondirectory Repo:
          gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-key 62B4981F 
          gpg --export -a "Fusiondirectory Archive Manager <contact@fusiondirectory.org>" > FD-archive-key
          apt-key add FD-archive-key
          echo '# fusiondirectory repository' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/fusiondirectory.list
          echo 'deb http://repos.fusiondirectory.org/debian-jessie jessie main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/fusiondirectory.list
          echo 'deb-src http://repos.fusiondirectory.org/debian-jessie jessie main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/fusiondirectory.list
          apt update
          
        • Install FusionDirectory:
          apt -y install fusiondirectory fusiondirectory-schema
          
        • Insert core FusionDirectory schemas into *slapd
          fusiondirectory-insert-schema
          

          Verify:

          fusiondirectory-insert-schema -l
          core
          cosine
          nis
          inetorgperson
          samba
          core-fd
          core-fd-conf
          ldapns
          recovery-fd
          
        • Create a Fusiondirectory Apache vhost (/etc/apache2/sites-available/ldap.example.com.conf):
          <virtualhost *:80>
              ServerName ldap.example.com
              Redirect "/" "https://ldap.example.com/"
              ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-error.log
              CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-access.log combined
          </virtualhost>
          <ifmodule mod_ssl.c>
              <virtualhost *:443>
                      ServerName ldap.example.com
                      ServerAdmin webmaster@example.com
                      DocumentRoot /usr/share/fusiondirectory/html
                      ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-error.log
                      CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-access.log combined
                      SSLEngine on
                      SSLCertificateFile      /etc/letsencrypt/live/ldap.example.com/cert.pem
                      SSLCertificateKeyFile   /etc/letsencrypt/live/ldap.example.com/privkey.pem
                      <filesmatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
                                      SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
                      </filesmatch>
                      <directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
                                      SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
                      </directory>
                      BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \
                                      nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
                                      downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
                      BrowserMatch "MSIE [17-9]" ssl-unclean-shutdown
                      <ifmodule mod_php5.c>
                      <location></location>
                          php_admin_flag engine on
                          php_admin_flag register_globals off
                          php_admin_flag allow_call_time_pass_reference off
                          php_admin_flag expose_php off
                          php_admin_flag zend.ze1_compatibility_mode off
                          php_admin_flag register_long_arrays off
                          php_admin_value upload_tmp_dir /var/spool/fusiondirectory/
                          php_admin_value session.cookie_lifetime 0
                          #Include /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.secrets
          
                      </ifmodule>
                      <directory /usr/share/fusiondirectory/html></directory>
                          Order Allow,Deny
                          # Insert your public IPs here
                          Allow from 2.2.2.2
                          Allow from 2.2.2.3
          
              </virtualhost>
          </ifmodule>
          
        • Enable mod_ssl, ldap.example.com and disable 000-default and default-ssl:
          a2enmod ssl
          a2ensite ldap.example.com
          a2dissite default-ssl
          a2dissite 000-default
          systemctl restart apache2
          
        • Setup FusionDirectory:
          • Install optional prerequisities:
            apt -y install php-mdb2
            
          • Point your Browser to:
            https://ldap.example.com/
            
          • Create a temporary token for the setup (taken from the first setup webpage):
            echo -n r9l1srnu0rvdeca4k826nq4e05 > /var/cache/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.auth 
            

            Click ‘Next’

          • In the ‘Language setup’ select ‘English’ and press ‘Next’.

          • If everything is ‘OK'(Green) on the ‘Installation check’ click ‘Next’

          • On the ‘LDAP connection setup’:

            • Location name: default
            • Connection URI: ldap://ldap.example.com:389
            • TLS connection: Yes
            • Admin DN: cn=admin(,dc=example,dc=com)
            • Admin password: *************************
            • LDAP schema check:
              • Enable schema validation when logging in: Yes
          • Keep defaults in ‘Look and feel’ except ‘Timezone’:
            • Timezone: America/Los_Angeles
          • Keep all the defaults in ‘Password settings’ except this:
            • Password minimum length: 8
          • In the ‘SSL’ field use these:
            • Key path: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.key
            • Certificate path: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.crt
            • CA certificate path: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt

            Click ‘Next’ when done.

          • In the ‘LDAP inspection’ page:

            • Press ‘Migrate’ (twice) in the ‘Inspecting object classes in root object’ option
          • Press ‘Create’ in the ‘Checking for super administrator’ option’, fill the fields, and ‘Apply’ when done:

            • User ID: ldapadmin
            • Password: ***************
            • Password (again): ***************
          • In the ‘Checking for default ACL roles and groups’ field, press ‘Migrate’
        • From the ‘Finish – write the configuration file’, download the configuration file on your PC

        • Copy the configuration file from your PC to ldap.example.com:

          scp fusiondirectory.conf root@ldap.example.com:/etc/fusiondirectory
          

        • Apply the correct permissions to the /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf file:
          fusiondirectory-setup --check-config
          Checking FusionDirectory's config file
          /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf exists…
          /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf is not set properly, do you want to fix it ?:  [Yes/No]?
          y
          
        • Click ‘Next’ when done.
      • Use encrypted passwords in fusiondirectory.conf:

        • Enable the headers module in Apache:
          a2enmod headers
          systemctl restart apache2
          
        • Encrypt passwords in fusiondirectory.conf:
          fusiondirectory-setup --encrypt-passwords
          
        • Uncomment the following line in /etc/apache2/sites-available/ldap.example.com.conf:
          Include /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.secrets
          
        • Restart Apache:
          systemctl restart apache2
          
        • If everything works as expected remove /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf.orig
          rm /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf.orig
          
      • Allow ‘.’ (dot) in usernames:
        • After everything is set, login as ldapadmin
        • Go to ‘Configuration’
        • Press the ‘Edit’ button at the bottom of the page
        • Un-tick the ‘Strict naming policy’ option and save.

      Installing essential FusionDirectory plugins

      • Setup LDAP related plugins:
        apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-ldapdump fusiondirectory-plugin-ldapmanager
        
      • Setup the DSA plugin for managing service accounts:
        apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-dsa fusiondirectory-plugin-dsa-schema
        fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/dsa-fd-conf.schema
        
        • Allow the service accounts to read and write the password. First create the ACL definition:

          <

          pre>
          cat > /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/service_accounts_acl.ldif < < EOF
          dn: olcDatabase={1}mdb,cn=config
          changetype: modify

      delete: olcAccess

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {0}to dn.subtree=”dc=example,dc=com” attrs=userPassword
        by self write
        by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by dn.children=”ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by anonymous auth

        by * none

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {1}to dn.subtree=”ou=people,dc=example,dc=com”
        by self read
        by dn.base=”uid=test.user,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by dn.children=”ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com” read
        by anonymous auth

        by * none

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {2}to attrs=userPassword,shadowLastChange
        by self write
        by anonymous auth
        by dn=”cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com” write

        by * none

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {3}to dn.subtree=”dc=example,dc=com”
        by self read
        by dn.base=”cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com” write
        by dn.children=”ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com” write

        by * none

      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {4}to dn.base=””
        by * none
      EOF

          **NOTE: Add two spaces before each '*by*' in the ldif above or you will spend endless hours in troubleshooting!**
      
      * Apply the ACL
      
          ```
      

      ldapadd -c -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/service_accounts_acl.ldif
      “`

      • Setup the Systems plugin:
        apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-systems fusiondirectory-plugin-systems-schema
        fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/service-fd.schema
        fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/systems-fd-conf.schema
        fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/systems-fd.schema
        
        • Setup a new server:
          • Name: ldap.example.com
          • Description: Communications Server
          • Location: My Datacenter
          • Base: /
    • IP-address: 10.134.31.94

    • MAC-address: 04:01:05:d6:63:02
  • From the ‘Services’ tab setup an LDAP service on the ldap.example.com server

  • You are finished. You can now start connecting services to your LDAP setup like mail or asterisk.

    References

    • https://documentation.fusiondirectory.org/en/start

    3 comments

    1. “Uncomment the following line in /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/ldap.example.com.conf:”

      I think u mean Uncomment the following line in /etc/apache2/sites-available/ldap.example.com.conf:

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