This guide is about setting up a Postfix/Dovecot system using LDAP/Fusiondirectoory as a backend.

Prerequisites

  • Install an LDAP/Fusiondirectory infrastructure
  • A DNS A Record:
    mail.example.com.       300     IN      A       4.5.6.7
  • A DNS PTR Record:
    7.6.5.4.in-addr.arpa. 300 IN    PTR mail.example.com.
  • A DNS MX Record (Actually more than one):
    example.com.    300 IN  MX  5 mail.example.com.

Install FusionDirectory Plugins

  • Install the Mail plugin:

    apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-mail fusiondirectory-plugin-mail-schema
    fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/mail-fd.schema
    fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/mail-fd-conf.schema
  • Install the Alias plugin:

    apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-alias fusiondirectory-plugin-alias-schema
    fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/alias-fd-conf.schema
    fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/alias-fd.schema
  • Install the Postfix plugin:

    apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-postfix fusiondirectory-plugin-postfix-schema
    fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/postfix-fd.schema

Setup mail services:

  • Enter the mail.example.com server configuration (Systems plugin)

  • From the ‘Services’ tab create a ‘Postfix (SMTP)’ and an ‘IMAP/POP3 generic’ service

  • Add mail capability to all normal users:

    • Click the ‘Mail’ tab of a user and then press ‘Add Mail settings’

    • Fill in the ‘Primary Address. field and select mail.example.com as the server.
  • Add All necessary distribution lists and redirections from ‘Aliases’

Setup postfix

  • Create a service account for postfix using the ‘DSA’ plugin in *FusionDirectory’. It should look like this:

    dn: cn=postfix,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
    cn: postfix
    userPassword:: yeduyt2732tet87eoiewoi32t4873t4387f7gf47gf49i6=
    structuralObjectClass: organizationalRole
    entryUUID: 280427ce-9a54-1035-8e48-bf1fd814366b
    creatorsName: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
    createTimestamp: 20160419082627Z
    objectClass: organizationalRole
    objectClass: top
    objectClass: simpleSecurityObject
    entryCSN: 20160419082628.006263Z#000000#000#000000
    modifiersName: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
    modifyTimestamp: 20160419082628Z
  • Install postfix:

    apt -y install postfix postfix-pcre postfix-ldap

    When you are prompted about “General type of mail configuration:” select “No configuration”

  • Prepare the /etc/postfix/main.cf file:
smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name
biff = no
append_dot_mydomain = no
readme_directory = no
smtpd_tls_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/mail.example.com.crt
smtpd_tls_key_file=/etc/ssl/private/mail.example.com.key
smtpd_use_tls=yes
smtpd_tls_security_level = may
smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
smtpd_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtpd_scache
smtp_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtp_scache
smtpd_tls_dh512_param_file = ${config_directory}/certs/dh_512.pem
smtpd_tls_dh1024_param_file = ${config_directory}/certs/dh_1024.pem
tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
smtpd_tls_loglevel = 0
smtpd_client_new_tls_session_rate_limit = 10
smtpd_tls_exclude_ciphers =
    EXP
    EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA
    ADH-DES-CBC-SHA
    DES-CBC-SHA
    SEED-SHA
    aNULL
    eNULL
    EXPORT
    DES
    RC4
    MD5
    PSK
    aECDH
    EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA
    KRB5-DES-CBC3-SHA
myhostname = mail.example.com
alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases
myorigin = /etc/mailname
mydestination = $myhostname, mail.example.com, localhost.localdomain, localhost
relayhost =
mynetworks = 127.0.0.0/8 [::ffff:127.0.0.0]/104 [::1]/128 10.10.10.0/24
mailbox_size_limit = 0
recipient_delimiter = +
inet_interfaces = all
inet_protocols = all
local_transport = local
postscreen_greet_action = enforce
smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
    reject
    permit_mynetworks
    permit_sasl_authenticated
    warn_if_reject reject_non_fqdn_hostname
    warn_if_reject reject_non_fqdn_sender
    reject_invalid_hostname
    reject_unknown_sender_domain
    reject_unverified_recipient
    reject_unauth_destination
    reject_non_fqdn_sender
    reject_non_fqdn_recipient
    reject_non_fqdn_helo_hostname
    check_sender_ns_access cidr:/etc/postfix/drop.cidr
    check_sender_mx_access cidr:/etc/postfix/drop.cidr
    reject_rbl_client bl.spamcop.net,
    reject_rbl_client cbl.abuseat.org
    reject
smtpd_data_restrictions = reject_multi_recipient_bounce
smtpd_sender_restrictions =
    reject_non_fqdn_sender
    reject_unknown_sender_domain
smtpd_helo_restrictions =
    permit_mynetworks
    check_helo_access pcre:/etc/postfix/identitycheck.pcre
    reject_invalid_helo_hostname
disable_vrfy_command = yes
smtpd_helo_required = yes
smtpd_delay_reject = no
smtpd_client_restrictions = check_client_access cidr:/etc/postfix/drop.cidr
message_size_limit = 51200000
  • Prepare the rest of the configuration files:

    • Prepare the virtual domains file:

      cat > /etc/postfix/virtual_domains << EOF
       # Domain                Anything
      
      example.com            OK
      EOF
    • Prepare the virtual recipients file:

      cat > /etc/postfix/ldap_virtual_recipients.cf << EOF
      bind = yes
      bind_dn = cn=postfix,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
      bind_pw = NotTheRealPassword
      server_host = ldap://ldap.example.com:389
      search_base = ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
      domain = example.com
      query_filter = (mail=%s)
      result_attribute = mail
      start_tls = yes
      version = 3
      EOF
    • Prepare the virtual aliases file:

      cat > /etc/postfix/ldap_virtual_aliases.cf << EOF
      bind = yes
      bind_dn = cn=postfix,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
      bind_pw = NotTheRealPass
      server_host = ldap://ldap.example.com:389
      search_base = ou=alias,dc=example,dc=com
      domain = example.com
      query_filter = (mail=%s)
      result_attribute = gosaMailAlternateAddress, gosaMailForwardingAddress
      start_tls = yes
      version = 3
      EOF
    • Prepare the identity check file:

      cat > /etc/postfix/identitycheck.pcre << EOF
      # Identity (RegEx)              Action
      
      /^(mail\.example\.com)$/       REJECT Hostname Abuse: $1
      /^(1\.2\.3\.4)$/                REJECT Hostname Abuse: $1
      /^(\[1\.2\.3\.4\])$/            REJECT Hostname Abuse: $1
      EOF
    • Prepare the blacklist file:

      cat > /etc/postfix/drop.cidr << EOF
      # IP/CIDR                       Action
      
      1.2.3.0/24                      REJECT Blacklisted
      EOF
  • Generate the virtual domains hashmap:

    postmap hash:/etc/postfix/virtual_domains
  • Start postfix:

    systemctl start postfix

    Verify:

    ss -lnptu | grep master
    tcp    LISTEN     0      100    *:25      *:*      users (("master",pid=15539,fd=12))
    
  • Enable support for smtps (port 465) and submission (port 587):

    Uncomment the following lines from /etc/postfix/master.cf:

    submission inet n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
    smtps     inet  n       -       -       -       -       smtpd

    Restart postfix:

    systemctl restart postfix

    Verify:

    ss -lnptu | grep master
    tcp    LISTEN     0      100    *:587     *:*      users:(("master",pid=15854,fd=16))
    tcp    LISTEN     0      100    *:465     *:*      users:(("master",pid=15854,fd=19))
    tcp    LISTEN     0      100    *:25      *:*      users:(("master",pid=15854,fd=12))
    
  • Take precautions for perfect forward secrecy:

    mkdir /etc/postfix/certs
    cd /etc/postfix/certs
    openssl dhparam -2 -out dh_512.pem 512
    openssl dhparam -2 -out dh_1024.pem 1024
    chmod 600 dh_*
  • Lookup test:

    postmap -q theo@example.com ldap:/etc/postfix/ldap_virtual_recipients.cf
    theo@example.com
    
  • Open SMTP, SMTPS ans Submission ports:

    ufw allow 25/tcp
    ufw allow 465/tcp
    ufw allow 587/tcp

Install and configure dovecot

  • Create the user that will handle mail delivery:
  • Create a service account for dovecot using the ‘DSA’ plugin in *FusionDirectory’. It should look like this:

    dn: cn=dovecot,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
    cn: dovecot
    userPassword:: ljsdewd98dej932j98dxjud8x3jx9843xj8943j438439e3=
    structuralObjectClass: organizationalRole
    entryUUID: 4d0d7174-9a54-1035-8e49-bf1fd814366b
    creatorsName: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
    createTimestamp: 20160419082730Z
    objectClass: organizationalRole
    objectClass: top
    objectClass: simpleSecurityObject
    entryCSN: 20160419082730.138012Z#000000#000#000000
    modifiersName: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
    modifyTimestamp: 20160419082730Z
  • Install dovecot:

    apt -y install dovecot-core dovecot-imapd dovecot-pop3d dovecot-lmtpd dovecot-ldap
  • Make the following changes in /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-ssl.conf:

    ssl = required
    ssl_cert = </etc/ssl/certs/mail.example.com.crt
    ssl_key = </etc/ssl/private/mail.example.com.key
  • Make the following changes in /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-auth.conf:

    disable_plaintext_auth = yes
    auth_mechanisms = plain login
    !include auth-ldap.conf.ext
  • Make the following changes in /etc/dovecot/dovecot-ldap.conf.ext:

    uris = ldap://ldap.example.com
    dn = cn=dovecot,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
    dnpass = SomePass33
    tls = yes
    tls_ca_cert_file = /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
    tls_require_cert = demand
    ldap_version = 3
    base = ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
    user_attrs = =mail=maildir:/srv/vmail/%{ldap:mail}/Maildir
    user_filter = (&(objectClass=gosaMailAccount)(uid=%n))
    pass_attrs = uid=user,userPassword=password
    pass_filter = (&(objectClass=gosaMailAccount)(uid=%n))
    default_pass_scheme = SSHA
  • Make the following changes in /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-logging.conf:

    log_path = syslog
    syslog_facility = mail
    auth_verbose = yes
    auth_verbose_passwords = no
    auth_debug = no
    auth_debug_passwords = no
    mail_debug = no
    verbose_ssl = no
  • Make the following changes in /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-mail.conf:

    mail_uid = 5000
    mail_gid = 5000
  • Make the following changes in /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-master.conf:
service imap-login {
  inet_listener imap {
    port = 143
  }
  inet_listener imaps {
    port = 993
    ssl = yes
  }
}

service pop3-login { inet_listener pop3 { port = 110 } inet_listener pop3s { port = 995 ssl = yes } }
service auth { unix_listener auth-userdb { mode = 0777 user = dovecot group = dovecot } }
  • Add the vmail user in the system:

    addgroup --system --gid 5000 vmail
    adduser --system --home /srv/vmail --uid 5000 --gid 5000 --disabled-password --disabled-login vmail
  • Restart dovecot:

    systemctl restart dovecot

    Verify:

    netstat -lnptu | grep dovecot
    tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:993             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
    tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:995             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
    tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:110             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
    tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:143             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
    tcp6       0      0 :::993                  :::*                    LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
    tcp6       0      0 :::995                  :::*                    LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
    tcp6       0      0 :::110                  :::*                    LISTEN      20894/dovecot   
    tcp6       0      0 :::143                  :::*                    LISTEN      20894/dovecot  
    
  • Check if you can login:

    openssl s_client -connect localhost:993
    <output ommitted...>
    * OK [CAPABILITY IMAP4rev1 LITERAL+ SASL-IR LOGIN-REFERRALS ID ENABLE IDLE AUTH=PLAIN AUTH=LOGIN] Dovecot ready.
    a1 LOGIN theo MyNotSoSecretPass
    a1 OK [CAPABILITY IMAP4rev1 LITERAL+ SASL-IR LOGIN-REFERRALS ID ENABLE IDLE SORT SORT=DISPLAY THREAD=REFERENCES THREAD=REFS THREAD=ORDEREDSUBJECT MULTIAPPEND URL-PARTIAL CATENATE UNSELECT CHILDREN NAMESPACE UIDPLUS LIST-EXTENDED I18NLEVEL=1 CONDSTORE QRESYNC ESEARCH ESORT SEARCHRES WITHIN CONTEXT=SEARCH LIST-STATUS SPECIAL-USE BINARY MOVE] Logged in
    a3 LOGOUT
    * BYE Logging out
    a2 OK Logout completed.
    closed
  • Enable IMAP, IMAPS, POP3 and POP3S ports:

    ufw allow 110/tcp
    ufw allow 143/tcp
    ufw allow 993/tcp
    ufw allow 995/tcp
  • Tell postfix to deliver mail using dovecot:

    • Add the following lines at the end of /etc/postfix/master.cf:

      dovecot   unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
        flags=ODRhu user=vmail:vmail argv=/usr/lib/dovecot/deliver -e -f ${sender} -d ${recipient}
      
    • Add these attributes in /etc/postfix/main.cf:

      virtual_transport = dovecot
      dovecot_destination_recipient_limit = 1
  • Restart postfix and dovecot:

    systemctl restart postfix dovecot

Install SASL for SMTP AUTH

  • Create a service account for saslauthd using the ‘DSA’ plugin in *FusionDirectory’. It should look like this:

    dn: cn=saslauthd,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
    cn: saslauthd
    userPassword:: ejdoedoifj9ewufd9843e9ejfd98je938jcr9843843=
    structuralObjectClass: organizationalRole
    entryUUID: 61143234-9a54-1035-8e4a-bf1fd814366b
    creatorsName: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
    createTimestamp: 20160419082803Z
    objectClass: organizationalRole
    objectClass: top
    objectClass: simpleSecurityObject
    entryCSN: 20160419082803.738357Z#000000#000#000000
    modifiersName: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
    modifyTimestamp: 20160419082803Z
  • Install SASL:

    apt -y install libsasl2-2 sasl2-bin
  • Create the /etc/postfix/sasl/smtpd.conf file:

    cat > /etc/postfix/sasl/smtpd.conf << EOF
    log_level: 3
    pwcheck_method: saslauthd
    mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
    EOF
  • Make the following changes in /etc/default/saslauthd:

    START=yes
    MECHANISMS="ldap"
    OPTIONS="-c -m /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd"
  • Create the /etc/saslauthd.conf file:

    cat > /etc/saslauthd.conf << EOF
    ldap_servers: ldap://ldap.example.com/
    ldap_bind_dn: cn=saslauthd,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
    ldap_bind_pw: MySecretPass
    ldap_timeout: 10
    ldap_time_limit: 10
    ldap_scope: sub
    ldap_search_base: ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
    ldap_auth_method: bind
    ldap_filter: (&(uid=%u)(mail=*))
    ldap_debug: 0
    ldap_verbose: off
    ldap_ssl: yes
    ldap_starttls: no
    ldap_referrals: yes
    EOF
  • Add the postfix user in the sasl group:

    usermod -aG sasl postfix
  • Add these attributes in /etc/postfix/main.cf:

    smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
    broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
  • Restart saslauthd and postfix:

    systemctl restart saslauthd postfix
  • Test message delivery using SMTP AUTH:

    First you need to install swaks:

    apt -y install swaks

    Then use swaks to test message delivery:

    swaks --from noreply@example.com --to theo@example.com --server 127.0.0.1:25 --tls --auth plain --auth-user=theo
  • Test if the message has been delivered to inbox:

    First you need to install mutt:

    apt -y install mutt

    Then use mutt to test if the message has been delivered to inbox:

    mutt -f /srv/vmail/theo@example.com/Maildir/

    NOTE: When you are asked to create a ‘mail’ folder just say ‘no’.

References

LDAP/Fusiondirectory setup

In this guide we will be setting up LDAP (openldap) along with the FusionDirectory web management tool.

Preparations

  • Install Debian jessie (Ubuntu 16.04 should work too) on your server or VM

  • Setup the DNS records in your DNS servers:

    ldap.example.com.           3599    IN      A       1.1.1.1

    NOTE: replace 1.1.1.1 with you actual internal or external IP

  • Allow ssh and web services on firewall:

    apt -y install ufw
    ufw allow 22/tcp
    ufw allow 80/tcp
    ufw allow 443/tcp
    ufw enable

    NOTE: It may be a good idea to change the default ssh port from 22 to something less predictable

Setup LDAP

  • Setup ldap.example.com in /etc/hosts:

    127.0.2.1 ldap.example.com ldap
  • Install *OpenLDAP and FusionDirectory

    apt -y install slapd
    • Enter and verify the administrator password for slapd.
  • Create An Internal Certificate Authority for Example LTD:

    • First install gnutls-bin:

      apt -y install gnutls-bin
    • Create the key for the internal CA for example.com:

      certtool --generate-privkey --outfile example.com-rootCA.key
    • Create a certificate for our internal CA:

      certtool --generate-self-signed --load-privkey example.com-rootCA.key --outfile example.com-rootCA.crt
      Generating a self signed certificate...
      Please enter the details of the certificate's distinguished name. Just press enter to ignore a field.
      Common name: Example LTD Internal ROOT CA
      UID: 
      Organizational unit name: IT
      Organization name: Example LTD
      Locality name: Limassol
      State or province name: Limassol
      Country name (2 chars): CY
      Enter the subject's domain component (DC): 
      This field should not be used in new certificates.
      E-mail: admins@example.com
      Enter the certificate's serial number in decimal (default: 6295758616856773074): 
      The certificate will expire in (days): 7300

      Activation/Expiration time. The certificate will expire in (days): 7300

      Extensions. Does the certificate belong to an authority? (y/N): y Path length constraint (decimal, -1 for no constraint): -1 Is this a TLS web client certificate? (y/N): Will the certificate be used for IPsec IKE operations? (y/N): Is this a TLS web server certificate? (y/N): Enter a dnsName of the subject of the certificate: Enter a URI of the subject of the certificate: Enter the IP address of the subject of the certificate: Enter the e-mail of the subject of the certificate: Will the certificate be used to sign other certificates? (y/N): y Will the certificate be used to sign CRLs? (y/N): Will the certificate be used to sign code? (y/N): Will the certificate be used to sign OCSP requests? (y/N): Will the certificate be used for time stamping? (y/N): Enter the URI of the CRL distribution point: X.509 Certificate Information: Version: 3 Serial Number (hex): 575f071b0d5a41d2 Validity: Not Before: Mon Jun 13 19:19:27 UTC 2016 Not After: Sun Jun 08 19:20:00 UTC 2036 Subject: CN=Example LTD Internal ROOT CA,OU=IT,O=Example LTD,L=Limassol,ST=Limassol,C=CY,EMAIL=admins@example.com Subject Public Key Algorithm: RSA Algorithm Security Level: Medium (2048 bits) Modulus (bits 2048): 00:c0:75:c8:02:05:d0:0c:67:af:ac:0c:80:53:bf:cd a3:80:76:cf:3e:14:19:99:5c:24:b4:fc:b0:42:8d:5a 03:5d:04:a5:85:c7:fe:e3:d4:30:6c:4c:26:90:76:c5 3e:a0:dc:a7:53:a7:eb:13:60:78:44:b3:0a:b2:77:0c 46:19:96:ea:d2:46:82:9c:11:2c:a5:e2:a1:57:38:f4 8e:4d:74:4f:f9:41:dd:11:f4:c2:f5:9f:b7:9a:93:7d a7:f8:f3:dd:2e:08:6a:25:75:79:f3:63:e5:09:1f:bd 6a:38:45:85:f0:63:54:c0:08:68:41:15:66:a4:e3:84 49:7e:e5:c5:c7:6c:d3:c7:be:d5:5a:df:1a:1d:55:f8 35:73:bb:e3:ea:f7:66:af:d9:09:72:ca:17:5f:80:09 99:6a:49:e3:8b:f2:72:56:ac:f8:ba:60:49:d5:80:2a 07:e6:17:88:86:e4:3c:89:cd:af:2b:66:a1:af:53:f4 66:21:30:a3:22:af:a9:11:6e:98:e0:f7:6d:ef:8a:32 e9:0b:a4:82:7b:7b:db:2d:90:8e:bd:e4:54:04:a4:52 e8:cf:f6:2e:9b:97:46:ab:cb:38:06:23:33:db:42:0c 25:41:5a:d7:02:15:07:c6:e8:86:0b:a6:d7:7d:81:16 bd Exponent (bits 24): 01:00:01 Extensions: Basic Constraints (critical): Certificate Authority (CA): TRUE Key Purpose (not critical): Time stamping. Key Usage (critical): Certificate signing. Subject Key Identifier (not critical): 7a596f6dea4080e89c9e78a698d7126cd63dafa7 Other Information: Public Key ID: 7a596f6dea4080e89c9e78a698d7126cd63dafa7 Public key's random art: +--[ RSA 2048]----+ | | | . . | | . . . | | o . . | | . .+. S o | | =o..o. + . . | | o.o= .oo . o o | | oo+. .o o o | |o... E+ .o | +-----------------+

      Is the above information ok? (y/N): y

      Signing certificate...
    • Add the Example LTD Internal ROOT CA as trusted in ca-certificates:

      mkdir /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra
      cp example.com-rootCA.crt /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra
      dpkg-reconfigure ca-certificates

      Add the extra/example.com-rootCA.crt CA as a trusted CA.

  • Configure slapd:

    dpkg-reconfigure slapd
    • Omit OpenLDAP server configuration? No
    • DNS domain name: example.com
    • Organization name: Example LTD
    • Administrator password: ***
    • Verify password: *****
    • Database backend to use: MDB
    • Do you want the database to be removed when slapd is purged? No
    • Move old database? Yes
    • Allow LDAPv2 protocol? No
  • Configure TLS on LDAP:

    • Create a key for ldap.example.com:

      certtool --generate-privkey --outfile ldap.example.com.key
      Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key...
    • Create a certificate for ldap.example.com:

      certtool --generate-certificate --load-privkey ldap.example.com.key --outfile ldap.example.com.crt --load-ca-certificate example.com-rootCA.crt --load-ca-privkey example.com-rootCA.key
      Generating a signed certificate...
      Please enter the details of the certificate's distinguished name. Just press enter to ignore a field.
      Common name: ldap.example.com
      UID: 
      Organizational unit name: IT
      Organization name: Example LTD
      Locality name: Limassol
      State or province name: Limassol
      Country name (2 chars): CY
      Enter the subject's domain component (DC): 
      This field should not be used in new certificates.
      E-mail: admins@example.com
      Enter the certificate's serial number in decimal (default: 6295762607454361711):

      Activation/Expiration time. The certificate will expire in (days):
      3650

      Extensions. Does the certificate belong to an authority? (y/N): Is this a TLS web client certificate? (y/N): Will the certificate be used for IPsec IKE operations? (y/N): Is this a TLS web server certificate? (y/N): Enter a dnsName of the subject of the certificate: Enter a URI of the subject of the certificate: Enter the IP address of the subject of the certificate: Enter the e-mail of the subject of the certificate: Will the certificate be used for signing (required for TLS)? (Y/n): Will the certificate be used for encryption (not required for TLS)? (Y/n): X.509 Certificate Information: Version: 3 Serial Number (hex): 575f0abc2f81186f Validity: Not Before: Mon Jun 13 19:35:45 UTC 2016 Not After: Thu Jun 11 19:36:29 UTC 2026 Subject: CN=ldap.example.com,OU=IT,O=Example LTD,L=Limassol,ST=Limassol,C=CY,EMAIL=admins@example.com Subject Public Key Algorithm: RSA Algorithm Security Level: Medium (2048 bits) Modulus (bits 2048): 00:d0:15:8e:02:90:5f:4a:9f:90:ea:1e:35:e6:4b:eb a9:8c:e5:bf:68:ec:83:0e:49:5b:d1:f0:08:4b:ac:b0 31:d2:e0:a7:eb:18:d3:ee:b8:38:b7:c4:0a:cc:97:cc b6:ac:2d:29:c8:a8:c4:7c:cc:f1:36:5a:e9:6b:52:f5 1e:e5:4f:90:67:34:1f:8c:a8:17:72:ee:40:87:ba:ae 8b:f8:4f:f8:be:51:ee:ea:d5:e4:17:63:79:22:41:c0 19:43:33:55:bb:46:80:5c:b8:16:18:fa:fb:17:58:c2 ed:d2:14:10:3b:57:5d:de:7f:29:ab:66:c2:81:87:05 f7:b7:27:78:a9:c0:8e:4f:1c:3f:66:6f:dd:43:26:9f 84:59:fb:c7:21:3c:62:4f:8d:4a:25:ab:7e:f0:5f:7e df:97:f7:79:f8:c7:2d:c8:5a:7a:de:ea:5b:c7:bd:e9 12:17:56:d3:47:ff:eb:fa:b5:6f:d9:56:8f:c7:e8:7a 46:92:75:cc:ff:de:0e:88:49:7d:d7:dd:6e:8d:3f:57 fa:0a:7a:3b:80:ec:0e:10:dd:70:d5:9a:8d:91:ce:72 44:06:21:d2:9d:e9:b8:91:13:68:4c:fc:e2:bb:4d:a8 97:ed:e9:a4:98:5d:e7:c0:ef:3e:9d:30:28:de:bd:10 01 Exponent (bits 24): 01:00:01 Extensions: Basic Constraints (critical): Certificate Authority (CA): FALSE Key Usage (critical): Digital signature. Key encipherment. Subject Key Identifier (not critical): 6d8a173de01efa11a892dda76ccd7abc609a2707 Authority Key Identifier (not critical): 7a596f6dea408aa89c9e78a698d7126cd63dafa7 Other Information: Public Key ID: 6d8a173de01efa00a892dda67ccd7abc609a2707 Public key's random art: +--[ RSA 2048]----+ | | | | | . | | . + | | A = | | +Y= . | | oo+kk+ | | iii==o* | | .=B**o. | +-----------------+

      Is the above information ok? (y/N): y

      Signing certificate...
    • Enable LDAPS in /etc/default/slapd:

      SLAPD_SERVICES="ldap:/// ldapi:/// ldaps:///"
      
    • Copy the ldap.example.com certficate and apply permissions

      mkdir /etc/ldap/ssl
      cp ldap.example.com.crt /etc/ldap/ssl
      cp ldap.example.com.key /etc/ldap/ssl
      chown -R openldap:openldap /etc/ldap/ssl/
    • Create a olcSSL.ldif file:

      mkdir /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/
      cd /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/
      cat > olcSSL.ldif << EOF dn: cn=config changetype: modify add: olcTLSCACertificateFile olcTLSCACertificateFile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt - add: olcTLSCertificateKeyFile olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.key - add: olcTLSCertificateFile olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.crt EOF
    • Import the TLS configuration:

      ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f olcSSL.ldif

      Verify with:

      slapcat -n0 | grep -i tls
      olcTLSCACertificateFile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
      olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.crt
      olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.key
      
    • Restart and verify slapd:

      systemctl restart slapd
      netstat -lnptu | grep slapd
      tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:636             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      27665/slapd     
      tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:389             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      27665/slapd     
      tcp6       0      0 :::636                  :::*                    LISTEN      27665/slapd     
      tcp6       0      0 :::389                  :::*                    LISTEN      27665/slapd 
      

Setup Apache

  • Install Apache with PHP:

    apt -y install apache2 libapache2-mod-php5 php5-ldap php5-mcrypt php5-intl php-pear

Setup Let’s Encrypt:

NOTE: this step is only necessary if you have a public facing ldap.example.com service

  • Setup Debian jessie backports:

    cat >> /etc/apt/sources.list << EOF
    # jessie backports
    deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main
    deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main
    EOF
  • Run apt update

  • Install Let’s Encrypt utility, certbot:

    apt -y install python-certbot-apache -t jessie-backports
  • Generate a certificate for all the domain ldap.example.com:

    certbot run -d ldap.example.com

    In the TUI add the admins@example.com email and agree to the ToS. Use 000-default.conf for now.

  • Download and trust all Let’s Encrypt Root and Intermediate CA certificates:

    wget https://letsencrypt.org/certs/isrgrootx1.pem
    for i in {1..4}; do wget https://letsencrypt.org/certs/lets-encrypt-x$i-cross-signed.pem; done
    cp *.pem /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra/
    for f in *.pem; do cp -- "$f" "/usr/share/ca-certificates/extra/${f%.pem}.crt"; done
    dpkg-reconfigure ca-certificates # Select all the newlly added CA certs

Setup FusionDirectory

  • Setup Fusiondirectory Repo:

    gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-key 62B4981F 
    gpg --export -a "Fusiondirectory Archive Manager <contact@fusiondirectory.org>" > FD-archive-key
    apt-key add FD-archive-key
    echo '# fusiondirectory repository' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/fusiondirectory.list
    echo 'deb http://repos.fusiondirectory.org/debian-jessie jessie main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/fusiondirectory.list
    echo 'deb-src http://repos.fusiondirectory.org/debian-jessie jessie main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/fusiondirectory.list
    apt update
  • Install FusionDirectory:

    apt -y install fusiondirectory fusiondirectory-schema
  • Insert core FusionDirectory schemas into *slapd

    fusiondirectory-insert-schema

    Verify:

    fusiondirectory-insert-schema -l
    core
    cosine
    nis
    inetorgperson
    samba
    core-fd
    core-fd-conf
    ldapns
    recovery-fd
    
  • Create a Fusiondirectory Apache vhost (/etc/apache2/sites-available/ldap.example.com.conf):

    <VirtualHost *:80>
        ServerName ldap.example.com
        Redirect "/" "https://ldap.example.com/"
        ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-error.log
        CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-access.log combined
    </VirtualHost>
    <IfModule mod_ssl.c>
        <VirtualHost *:443>
                ServerName ldap.example.com
                ServerAdmin webmaster@example.com
                DocumentRoot /usr/share/fusiondirectory/html
                ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-error.log
                CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ldap-access.log combined
                SSLEngine on
                SSLCertificateFile      /etc/letsencrypt/live/ldap.example.com/cert.pem
                SSLCertificateKeyFile   /etc/letsencrypt/live/ldap.example.com/privkey.pem
                <FilesMatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
                                SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
                </FilesMatch>
                <Directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
                                SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
                </Directory>
                BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \
                                nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
                                downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
                BrowserMatch "MSIE [17-9]" ssl-unclean-shutdown
                <IfModule mod_php5.c>
                <Location />
                    php_admin_flag engine on
                    php_admin_flag register_globals off
                    php_admin_flag allow_call_time_pass_reference off
                    php_admin_flag expose_php off
                    php_admin_flag zend.ze1_compatibility_mode off
                    php_admin_flag register_long_arrays off
                    php_admin_value upload_tmp_dir /var/spool/fusiondirectory/
                    php_admin_value session.cookie_lifetime 0
                    #Include /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.secrets
                </Location>
                </IfModule>
                <Directory /usr/share/fusiondirectory/html/>
                    Order Allow,Deny
                    # Insert your public IPs here
                    Allow from 2.2.2.2
                    Allow from 2.2.2.3
                </Directory>
        </VirtualHost>
    </IfModule>
  • Enable mod_ssl, ldap.example.com and disable 000-default and default-ssl:

    a2enmod ssl
    a2ensite ldap.example.com
    a2dissite default-ssl
    a2dissite 000-default
    systemctl restart apache2
  • Setup FusionDirectory:

    • Install optional prerequisities:

      apt -y install php-mdb2
    • Point your Browser to:

      https://ldap.example.com/
    • Create a temporary token for the setup (taken from the first setup webpage):

      echo -n r9l1srnu0rvdeca4k826nq4e05 > /var/cache/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.auth 

      Click ‘Next’

    • In the ‘Language setup’ select ‘English’ and press ‘Next’.

    • If everything is ‘OK'(Green) on the ‘Installation check’ click ‘Next’

    • On the ‘LDAP connection setup’:

      • Location name: default
      • Connection URI: ldap://ldap.example.com:389
      • TLS connection: Yes
      • Admin DN: cn=admin(,dc=example,dc=com)
      • Admin password: *****
      • LDAP schema check:
        • Enable schema validation when logging in: Yes
    • Keep defaults in ‘Look and feel’ except ‘Timezone’:

      • Timezone: America/Los_Angeles
    • Keep all the defaults in ‘Password settings’ except this:

      • Password minimum length: 8
    • In the ‘SSL’ field use these:

      • Key path: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.key
      • Certificate path: /etc/ldap/ssl/ldap.example.com.crt
      • CA certificate path: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt

      Click ‘Next’ when done.

    • In the ‘LDAP inspection’ page:

      • Press ‘Migrate’ (twice) in the ‘Inspecting object classes in root object’ option

      • Press ‘Create’ in the ‘Checking for super administrator’ option’, fill the fields, and ‘Apply’ when done:

        • User ID: ldapadmin
        • Password: ***
        • Password (again): ***
      • In the ‘Checking for default ACL roles and groups’ field, press ‘Migrate’
    • From the ‘Finish – write the configuration file’, download the configuration file on your PC

    • Copy the configuration file from your PC to ldap.example.com:

      scp fusiondirectory.conf root@ldap.example.com:/etc/fusiondirectory
    • Apply the correct permissions to the /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf file:

      fusiondirectory-setup --check-config
      Checking FusionDirectory's config file
      /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf exists…
      /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf is not set properly, do you want to fix it ?:  [Yes/No]?
      y
      
    • Click ‘Next’ when done.
  • Use encrypted passwords in fusiondirectory.conf:

    • Enable the headers module in Apache:

      a2enmod headers
      systemctl restart apache2
    • Encrypt passwords in fusiondirectory.conf:

      fusiondirectory-setup --encrypt-passwords
    • Uncomment the following line in /etc/apache2/sites-available/ldap.example.com.conf:

      Include /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.secrets
    • Restart Apache:

      systemctl restart apache2
    • If everything works as expected remove /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf.orig

      rm /etc/fusiondirectory/fusiondirectory.conf.orig
  • Allow ‘.’ (dot) in usernames:

    • After everything is set, login as ldapadmin
    • Go to ‘Configuration’
    • Press the ‘Edit’ button at the bottom of the page
    • Un-tick the ‘Strict naming policy’ option and save.

Installing essential FusionDirectory plugins

  • Setup LDAP related plugins:

    apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-ldapdump fusiondirectory-plugin-ldapmanager
  • Setup the DSA plugin for managing service accounts:

    apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-dsa fusiondirectory-plugin-dsa-schema
    fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/dsa-fd-conf.schema
    • Allow the service accounts to read and write the password. First create the ACL definition:

      cat > /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/service_accounts_acl.ldif << EOF
      dn: olcDatabase={1}mdb,cn=config
      changetype: modify
      delete: olcAccess
      -
      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {0}to dn.subtree="dc=example,dc=com" attrs=userPassword
        by self write
        by dn.base="cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com" write
        by dn.children="ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com" write
        by anonymous auth
        by * none
      -
      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {1}to dn.subtree="ou=people,dc=example,dc=com"
        by self read
        by dn.base="uid=test.user,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com" write
        by dn.base="cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com" write
        by dn.children="ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com" read
        by anonymous auth
        by * none
      -
      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {2}to attrs=userPassword,shadowLastChange
        by self write
        by anonymous auth
        by dn="cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com" write
        by * none
      -
      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {3}to dn.subtree="dc=example,dc=com"
        by self read
        by dn.base="cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com" write
        by dn.children="ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com" write
        by * none
      -
      add: olcAccess
      olcAccess: {4}to dn.base=""
        by * none
      EOF
      

      NOTE: Add two spaces after each ‘by‘ in the ldif above or you will spend endless hours in troubleshooting!

    • Apply the ACL

      ldapadd -c -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/ldap/custom_ldifs/service_accounts_acl.ldif
  • Setup the Systems plugin:

    apt -y install fusiondirectory-plugin-systems fusiondirectory-plugin-systems-schema
    fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/service-fd.schema
    fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/systems-fd-conf.schema
    fusiondirectory-insert-schema -i /etc/ldap/schema/fusiondirectory/systems-fd.schema
    • Setup a new server:

      • Name: ldap.example.com
      • Description: Communications Server
      • Location: My Datacenter
      • Base: /

      • IP-address: 10.134.31.94
      • MAC-address: 04:01:05:d6:63:02
    • From the ‘Services’ tab setup an LDAP service on the ldap.example.com server

You are finished. You can now start connecting services to your LDAP setup like mail or asterisk.

References