This is a guide to setup a recent Ubuntu system on a Utilite ARM computer, to replace the official Ubuntu 12.04 OS.


* You need to prepare a [kernel with cgroups](/?p=1073 “Building a new Linux kernel for your Utilite Computer”) support.
* An ARM bootable microSD or USB. You can use the official Ubuntu 12.04 [Linux Utilite Image]( “Linux Utilite Image”) on the removable device.
* Backup any data you have on the original system!


1. Boot from microSD or USB.

2. Update the system and install **`debootstrap`**:

   $ sudo apt-get update
   $ sudo apt-get install debootstrap

3. Mount the SATA root filesystem on ***/mnt***:

   $ sudo mount /dev/sda2 /mnt

4. Clear the filesystem:

> ***Note***
> *Make sure you save any data you need, before doing this!.*

   $ sudo rm -fr /mnt/*

Installation of an Ubuntu or Debian base system

1. Use **`debootstrap`** to install the Ubuntu base system:

   $ sudo debootstrap --foreign --arch=armhf trusty /mnt

You can use **vivid** instead of **trusty** if you are feeling adventurous.

For a Debian system use this command instead:

   $ sudo debootstrap --foreign --arch armhf jessie /mnt

You can use **stretch** or **sid** instead of **jessie** if you are feeling lucky.

2. Chroot into the new system:

   $ sudo mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev
   $ sudo mount -o bind /dev/pts /mnt/dev/pts
   $ sudo mount -t sysfs /sys /mnt/sys
   $ sudo mount -t proc /proc /mnt/proc
   $ sudo cp /proc/mounts /mnt/etc/mtab
   $ sudo chroot /mnt

3. Second stage **`debootstrap`**:

After you enter the **chroot** jail, we need to complete the second stage of the base setup:

   # /debootstrap/debootstrap --second-stage

Installing additional packages

1. Setup the correct timezone:

   # dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

2. Add repositories in ***/etc/apt/sources.list***.

* For Ubuntu:
deb trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse

deb-src trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse

* For Debian:

deb jessie main contrib non-free
deb jessie-updates main contrib non-free
deb jessie/updates main contrib non-free

deb-src jessie main contrib non-free
deb-src jessie-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src jessie/updates main contrib non-free

* Run update after adding the repositories:

      # apt-get update

2. Install additional software.

* We need to create a fake **`/sbin/initctl`** to prevent **apt** from breaking:

      # dpkg-divert --local --rename --add /sbin/initctl
      # ln -s /bin/true /sbin/initctl

* Install the software you need:

      # apt-get -y install language-pack-en ssh isc-dhcp-client net-tools man lsof less

* Remove the fake **`/sbin/initctl`**:

      # rm /sbin/initctl
      # dpkg-divert --local --rename --remove /sbin/initctl

3. Setup users:

   # passwd root
   # useradd -m -s /bin/bash utilite
   # passwd utilite
   # usermod -a -G adm,cdrom,sudo,dip,plugdev utilite

4. Setup a kernel:

Now you need to deploy the [kernel we prepare earlier](/?p=1073#toc-deploy-the-tarball “Building a new Linux kernel for your Utilite Computer”) and reboot.

Choose a role for your system

1. After you reboot you may find that networking is not working. If you are in a **dhcp** enabled network run **`dhclient`** to get an IP address:

   # dhclient 

2. Upgrade the system to the latest upgrades:

   # apt-get update
   # apt-get -y dist-upgrade

3. Check the available roles

* On Ubuntu you may want to install **`tasksel`** (already installed on Debian):

      # apt-get install tasksel

* See the available roles on Ubuntu:

      # tasksel --list-tasks
      i server        Basic Ubuntu server
      i openssh-server        OpenSSH server
      u dns-server    DNS server
      u lamp-server   LAMP server
      u mail-server   Mail server
      u postgresql-server     PostgreSQL database
      u print-server  Print server
      u samba-server  Samba file server
      u tomcat-server Tomcat Java server
      u cloud-image   Ubuntu Cloud Image (instance)
      u virt-host     Virtual Machine host
      u ubuntustudio-graphics 2D/3D creation and editing suite
      u ubuntustudio-audio    Audio recording and editing suite
      u edubuntu-desktop-gnome        Edubuntu desktop
      u kubuntu-active        Kubuntu Active
      u kubuntu-desktop       Kubuntu desktop
      u kubuntu-full  Kubuntu full
      u ubuntustudio-font-meta        Large selection of font packages
      u lubuntu-desktop       Lubuntu Desktop
      u lubuntu-core  Lubuntu minimal installation
      u mythbuntu-frontend    Mythbuntu frontend
      u mythbuntu-backend-master      Mythbuntu master backend
      u mythbuntu-backend-slave       Mythbuntu slave backend
      u ubuntustudio-photography      Photograph touchup and editing suite
      u ubuntustudio-publishing       Publishing applications
      u ubuntu-gnome-desktop  Ubuntu GNOME desktop
      u ubuntu-desktop        Ubuntu desktop
      u ubuntu-usb    Ubuntu desktop USB
      u ubuntustudio-video    Video creation and editing suite
      u xubuntu-desktop       Xubuntu desktop
      u edubuntu-dvd-live     Edubuntu live DVD
      u kubuntu-active-live   Kubuntu Active Remix live CD
      u kubuntu-live  Kubuntu live CD
      u kubuntu-dvd-live      Kubuntu live DVD
      u lubuntu-live  Lubuntu live CD
      u ubuntu-gnome-live     Ubuntu GNOME live CD
      u ubuntustudio-dvd-live Ubuntu Studio live DVD
      u ubuntu-live   Ubuntu live CD
      u ubuntu-usb-live       Ubuntu live USB
      u xubuntu-live  Xubuntu live CD
      u manual        Manual package selection

* See the available roles on debian:

      $ tasksel --list-tasks
      i desktop	Debian desktop environment
      u gnome-desktop	GNOME
      u xfce-desktop	Xfce
      u kde-desktop	KDE
      u cinnamon-desktop	Cinnamon
      u mate-desktop	MATE
      i lxde-desktop	LXDE
      u web-server	web server
      u print-server	print server
      u ssh-server	SSH server
      u laptop	laptop

4. Choose a role.

If you would like a Desktop system, I suggest you choose something light like **lubuntu-desktop** or **lxde-desktop**.

* Installing **Lubuntu** (Ubuntu):

      # tasksel --task-packages lubuntu-desktop | xargs apt-get -y install

I prefer this method rather than the [TUI]( “Text-based User Interface”) of **tasksel**, so as to have better overview and control of the process. Keep an eye on it every now and then, because it will ask you about keyboard-configuration and other questions. Select the default settings if you are unsure.

* Installing **LXDE Desktop** (Debian):

      # apt-get install task-lxde-desktop network-manager

For Desktop systems it may be a good idea to install **network-manager** as well.

* Add the **vivante** GPU module on startup:

      # echo vivante >> /etc/modules

After you finish you can reboot your system and start playing.


The Utilite computer comes with an aging Ubuntu 12.04. If you try to upgrade it to to 14.04 or later, you will end up with a broken system because of their dependency, either fully or partially, on the [systemd]( “systemd”) init system. The problem is that the stock kernel does not support [cgroups]( “control groups”) which is a mandatory dependency for **systemd**. Type these commands on your Utilite, to verify the missing feature:

$ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /boot
$ /usr/src/linux-kernel/scripts/extract-ikconfig /boot/uImage-cm-fx6 | grep CGROUPS
# CONFIG_CGROUPS is not set

There is also another important feature: **fhandle**. A **systemd** Linux system without an **fhandle** enabled kernel, will fail to enable the **swap space** during boot.

Most modern distros, with a few notable [exceptions]( “systemd adoption”), have switched to this new initialization system. So if we want to use a recent version of Ubuntu, Debian or most other distros, we need to recompile the kernel with **cgroups** support.


* A standard x86-based PC with Linux installed (I use Ubuntu 15.04 at present). This is going to be our build station.
* A Utilite ARM Computer. This is our target.

Prepare the cross-compile toolchain

The necessary packages are available on recent Ubuntu releases and Debian unstable.

First let’s install all necessary and optional packages on our build station:

$ sudo apt-get -y install build-essential gcc-arm-none-eabi gcc-arm-linux-gnueabi gcc-arm-linux-gnueabihf libncurses5 libncurses5-dev libncursesw5 libncursesw5-dev lzop git u-boot-tools pkg-config

Download the kernel sources

1. You can download the sources from here:

   $ wget

2. Then extract the tarball and change into the kernel source root:

   $ tar xvzf master.tar.gz
   $ cd linux-kernel-3.0-master/

Building the kernel

1. Prepare the environment:

   $ export ARCH=arm
   $ export CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf-

2. Prepare the configuration for utilite:

   $ make utilite_defconfig

* Check if **cgroups** and **fhandle** are enabled:

      $ grep CGROUPS .config 
      # CONFIG_CGROUPS is not set
      $ grep FHANDLE .config 
      # CONFIG_FHANDLE is not set

* Since **cgroups** and **fhandle**, are not enabled we need to enter **menuconfig** to enable it:

      $ make menuconfig

Navigate to **General Setup** and go down to **Control Group support**. Press the space bar and you will see an asterisk ([*]). That means the **Control Group support** feature is enabled to be compiled in the kernel. Now do the same with the **open by fhandle syscalls** option. Press **exit** and **Yes** to save your new configuration.

* Make sure **cgroups** and **fhandle** are now enabled:

      $ grep CGROUPS .config 
      $ grep FHANDLE .config

Good. Let’s proceed with the build.

3. Build the kernel and prepare a U-boot compatible image (**uImage**):

   $ make
   $ make uImage

This will take some time depending on how powerful your build station is. Go for coffee, watch some movie, read a [comic]( “XKCD: Compiling”)…

Prepare the tarball

Now we need to package the kernel and modules together.

1. Install the modules in the **rootfs** directory:

   $ mkdir -p rootfs/boot
   $ INSTALL_MOD_PATH=./rootfs make modules_install

Ignore this error after `make modules_install`:

make[1]: *** No rule to make target ‘rootfs/lib/firmware/./’, needed by ‘rootfs/lib/firmware/ti_3410.fw’. Stop.
Makefile:1130: recipe for target ‘_modinst_post’ failed
make: *** [_modinst_post] Error 2

2. Copy the image and prepare the tarball:

   $ cp arch/arm/boot/uImage rootfs/boot/uImage-cm-fx6
   $ cp arch/arm/boot/zImage rootfs/boot/zImage-cm-fx6
   $ cd rootfs
   $ tar cvzf ../linux-utilite-kernel-3.0.tar.gz .
   $ cd ..

Deploy the tarball

Now we are ready to deploy the kernel to the Utilite computer.

1. Copy the kernel to the Utilite computer:

   $ scp linux-utilite-kernel-3.0.tar.gz utilite@utilite-desktop:

2. Now connect to the Utilite and mount the boot partition:

   $ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /boot

3. Backup the existing files and remove the old image and modules:

   $ tar cvzf linux-utilite-original-kernel.tar.gz /boot/ /lib/modules/3.0.35-cm-fx6-6.3/
   $ sudo rm /boot/uImage-cm-fx6 
   $ sudo rm -fr /lib/modules/3.0.35-cm-fx6-6.3

If something goes wrong you can boot from a microSD or a USB drive and restore the original kernel.

4. Deploy the kernel:

> ***Note***
> *Make sure the **/boot** directory is mounted on the **/dev/sda1** filesystem before running the following command.*

   $ sudo tar xvzf linux-utilite-kernel-3.0.tar.gz -C /
   $ sudo chown -R root:root /lib/modules/3.0.35-cm-fx6-6.4
   $ sudo depmod 3.0.35-cm-fx6-6.4

The errors caused by **tar** are produced because FAT filesystem like **/dev/sda1**, do not support the ownership attribute. You can safely ignore them. **`chown`** is used to set the owneship of the modules to the root user, since the tarball was packaged under a normal user account and inherited its permissions.

You can now reboot the Utilite and see if everything works as expected. If not, you can boot with a microSD or a USB flash drive and restore the original kernel and modules.

After we have successfully prepared a **cgroups** enabled kernel, we can move on to setup a new [Ubuntu or Debian](/?p=1087 “Setup a new Ubuntu or Debian system on the Utilite”) system on the Utilite.

* [1]

I have mentioned in an [earlier post](/?p=983 “Adding USB boot support on the Utilite nettop”) that I am an owner of a [Utilite ARM computer]( “Utilite”). One of the issues I experienced with the default setup, is that there is no [swap partition]( “Swap FAQ”). That causes Firefox some memory hungry applications to perform badly.

Check for yourself, if **swap** is activated on your machine:

            total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:       2006476     263752    1742724      20100      21428     107388
-/+ buffers/cache:     134936    1871540
Swap:            0          0          0

As you can see in the output, no swap space is used. So we are going to see how we can resize a linux ext2/ext3/ext4 partition to make space for a swap partition. We are then going to create a new swap partition and activate it on boot.


* Prepare a bootable microSD or USB drive. You can use the [Utilite Linux Installer]( for this, or install the official [Utilite Linux Image]( on a removable device.

Checking the current setup

After you boot using a removable medium, you can follow this procedure to check the current setup:

$ sudo fdisk -l /dev/sda

Disk /dev/sda: 29.8 GiB, 32017047552 bytes, 62533296 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xa5161f73

Device     Boot  Start      End  Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *      2048   206847   204800  100M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
/dev/sda2       206848 62533295 62326448 29.7G 83 Linux

* **`START_SECTOR`** = 206848
* **`END_SECTOR`** = 62533295
* **`TOTAL_SECTORS`** = 62326448

As you can see, the main root partition (**sda2**) has a size of **29.7GB**. We will reduce it to **28**GB and you the rest of the space (**1.7GB**) for swap. That should be more than enough.

Now in order to avoid tedious calculations, and make sure the filesystem on **sda2** takes all available space on the partition we are going to use this trick:

* Resize the **sda2** filesystem to **27GB**.
* Resize the **sda2** partition to **28GB**.
* Resize the **sda2** filesystem to all available space of the **sda2** partition (**28GB**).

Temporarily resize **sda2**

1. First force check the filesystem for errors:

   $ sudo e2fsck -f /dev/sda2

If it finishes without errors move to the next step

2. Resize the filesystem to **27GB**:

  $ sudo resize2fs /dev/sda2 27G

3. Verify the result:

   $ sudo dumpe2fs  /dev/sda2 | grep Block | head -2
   dumpe2fs 1.42.12 (29-Aug-2014)
   Block count:              7077888
   Block size:               4096

   $ echo '(7077888 * 4096)/1024/1024/1024' | bc -l

Exactly **27GB**.

Resize the **sda2** partition

To resize the **sda2** partition we will delete it temporarily and recreate it using the same **`START_SECTOR`** but a different **`END_SECTOR`**.

1. To calculate the new end sector you can use this formula:


   $ echo "206848+62326448*28/29.7" | bc -l

We can round up the **`NEW_END_SECTOR`** to **58965789**.

2. Use **fdisk** to resize the partition:

* Delete the **sda2** partition:

      $ sudo fdisk /dev/sda
      Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
      Be careful before using the write command.

      Command (m for help): d
      Partition number (1,2, default 2): 2

      Partition 2 has been deleted.

Verify that **sda2** is deleted:

      Command (m for help): p
      Disk /dev/sda: 29,8 GiB, 32017047552 bytes, 62533296 sectors
      Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
      Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
      I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
      Disklabel type: dos
      Disk identifier: 0xa5161f73

      Device     Boot Start    End Sectors  Size Id Type
      /dev/sda1  *     2048 206847  204800  100M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)

It is deleted, but not really until you issue the **w**rite command.

* Create a smaller **sda2** partition:

      Command (m for help): n
      Partition type
         p   primary (1 primary, 0 extended, 3 free)
         e   extended (container for logical partitions)
      Select (default p): p
      Partition number (2-4, default 2): 
      First sector (206848-62533295, default 206848): 
      Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (206848-62533295, default 62533295): 58965789

      Created a new partition 2 of type 'Linux' and of size 28 GiB.      

For the end sector we use the value of the **`NEW_END_SECTOR`** we have calculated earlier. Now let’s verify the new partition:

      Command (m for help): p
      Disk /dev/sda: 29,8 GiB, 32017047552 bytes, 62533296 sectors
      Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
      Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
      I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
      Disklabel type: dos
      Disk identifier: 0xa5161f73

      Device     Boot  Start      End  Sectors  Size Id Type
      /dev/sda1  *      2048   206847   204800  100M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
      /dev/sda2       206848 58965789 58758942   28G 83 Linux

* Create a new partition of type **swap**:

      Command (m for help): n
      Partition type
         p   primary (2 primary, 0 extended, 2 free)
         e   extended (container for logical partitions)
      Select (default p): p
      Partition number (3,4, default 3): 
      First sector (58965790-62533295, default 58966016): 
      Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (58966016-62533295, default 62533295): 

      Created a new partition 3 of type 'Linux' and of size 1,7 GiB.

      Command (m for help): t
      Partition number (1-3, default 3): 3
      Partition type (type L to list all types): 82

      Changed type of partition 'Linux' to 'Linux swap / Solaris'.

Verify that the new partition is created:

      Command (m for help): p
      Disk /dev/sda: 29,8 GiB, 32017047552 bytes, 62533296 sectors
      Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
      Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
      I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
      Disklabel type: dos
      Disk identifier: 0xa5161f73

      Device     Boot    Start      End  Sectors  Size Id Type
      /dev/sda1  *        2048   206847   204800  100M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
      /dev/sda2         206848 58965789 58758942   28G 83 Linux
      /dev/sda3       58966016 62533295  3567280  1,7G 82 Linux swap / Solaris

Seems OK.

* Write changes and exit:

      Command (m for help): w
      The partition table has been altered.
      Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

Remember that nothing is changed unless you issue the **w**rite command. If you make a mistake, just hit Ctrl+c and no harm done.

3. Resize the filesystem to the full size of the partition:

* Force check the filesystem

      $ sudo e2fsck -f /dev/sda2

* Resize the filesystem to occupy all the available space in the partition:

      $ sudo resize2fs /dev/sda2

Running **`resize2fs`** without a size definition, extends the size of the filesystem to the size of the partition.

* Verify the new filesystem size:

      $ sudo dumpe2fs  /dev/sda2 | grep Block | head -2
      dumpe2fs 1.42.13 (17-May-2015)
      Block count:              7344867
      Block size:               4096

The size in bytes is `BLOCK_COUNT * BLOCK_SIZE` i.e. 7344867 * 4096 = 30084575232. The size in GB is:

      $ echo '(7344867 * 4096)/1024/1024/1024' | bc -l

Restart into your internal drive

At this point we need to restart into the Operating System installed on the internal SATA device and check if everything works:

$ sudo fdisk -l /dev/sda
Disk /dev/sda: 29,8 GiB, 32017047552 bytes, 62533296 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xa5161f73

Device     Boot    Start      End  Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *        2048   206847   204800  100M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
/dev/sda2         206848 58965789 58758942   28G 83 Linux
/dev/sda3       58966016 62533295  3567280  1,7G 82 Linux swap / Solaris

The partition table appears to be correct. But we haven’t formatted the swap partition yet:

$ free
            total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:       2006476     264380    1742096      20100      21568     107800
-/+ buffers/cache:     135012    1871464
Swap:            0          0          0

We need to format the swap partition before we can use it.

Setup the swap partition

1. Format the swap partition:

   $ sudo mkswap /dev/sda3
   mkswap: /dev/sda3: warning: wiping old swap signature.
   Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 1,7 GiB (1826443264 bytes)
   no label, UUID=fa1e99ff-a9ab-4fd7-ba81-e5020f4e604b

Take a note of the UUID: fa1e99ff-a9ab-4fd7-ba81-e5020f4e604b

2. Activate swap:

   $ sudo swapon /dev/sda3

3. Verify swap (in human readable form this time):

   $ free -m
            total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:          1959        259       1700         19         21        105
-/+ buffers/cache:        132       1826
Swap:         1741          0       1741

So we have a total of 1741MB of swap space.

4. Setup persistent swap.

To have swap activated persistently across reboots, we need to set it up in ***/etc/fstab***:

   # echo 'UUID="fa1e99ff-a9ab-4fd7-ba81-e5020f4e604b" none swap defaults 0 0' >> /etc/fstab

You need to run the above command as root.

Now after you reboot you can check with **`free`** to see if the swap space is activated.

Yet another practical packaging session, this ine on how to build a Debian package from scratch. This one too is based on the packaging tutorial and practical sessions of [Lucas Nussbaum](

We are going to download the source code of gnujump from upstream, and use the [pbuilder]( “Personal Builder”) tool to package it. The advantages of **pbuider** is that it creates a minimal [chroot jail]( “chroot”) that helps you track any dependencies you might forgot to specify in ***debian/control***. Also it gives you the opportunity to build Debian packages on Ubuntu and vice-versa. You can also build packages for releases other than your own.


* A recent Debian or Ubuntu system.

Preparation of the **pbuilder** jail

Install **pbuilder** and relevant packages:

$ sudo apt-get -y install pbuilder debootstrap devscripts packaging-dev debian-keyring ubuntu-archive-keyring

**NOTE: use *ubuntu-keyring* instead of *ubuntu-archive-keyring* if your build station is Ubuntu**

Prepare the target environment. For example for Ubuntu trusty use can use this setup:

$ sudo pbuilder create --debootstrapopts --variant=buildd --mirror --distribution trusty --architecture amd64 --components main --debbuildopts -mJohn Doe \<\>

Prepare the new package

1. Download the source:

   $ wget

2. Extract the archive and change into the source tree:

   $ tar xvzf gnujump-1.0.8.tar.gz
   $ cd gnujump-1.0.8/

Prepare for debian packaging

1. We are going to use the **`dh_make`** utility to prepare the ***debian*** directory and all the necessary files:

   $ DEBFULLNAME="John Doe" DEBEMAIL="" dh_make -s -y --createorig

Check if all necessary files are there:

   $ find debian/

Now Check the contents of the ***debian/changelog***, ***debian/rules*** and ***debian/control*** files.

2. We will need to make some changes in the ***debian/control*** file:

   Source: gnujump
   Section: games
   Priority: optional
   Maintainer: John Doe 
   Build-Depends: debhelper (>= 9), autotools-dev, libsdl1.2-dev, libsdl-image1.2-dev, libsdl-mixer1.2-dev
   Standards-Version: 3.9.5

The **libsdl1.2-dev**, **libsdl-image1.2-dev** and **libsdl-mixer1.2-dev** have been discovered by repeatedly compiling and failing until you get it right. The you can use the **`apt-cache search`** and **`apt-file search`** commands to discover the packages corresponding to the missing dependencies.

3. Edit the ***debian/rules*** file to look like this:


include /usr/share/dpkg/

export DEB_BUILD_MAINT_OPTIONS = hardening=+all

export DEB_CFLAGS_MAINT_APPEND = -Wall -pedantic
export DEB_LDFLAGS_MAINT_APPEND = -Wl,–as-needed

dh $@ –with autotools-dev

CFLAGS += -lm

4. Edit the ***debian/changelog***, with **`dch -e`**, to look like this:

gnujump (1.0.8-1) unstable; urgency=low

* Initial release

— John Doe Mon, 22 Jun 2015 17:41:22 +0300

Build the package

Run this command from the source tree:

$ pdebuild

Give your password when asked. **`pdebuild`** will download and install all dependencies in the **pbuilder** jail and then build the package. Changes will be lost from the jail, the next time you use it but if all goes well, you should see these files under ***/var/cache/pbuilder/result***:

$ ls -la /var/cache/pbuilder/result/
total 5776
drwxr-xr-x 2 root      root         4096 Ιούν 22 17:52 .
drwxr-xr-x 9 root      root         4096 Ιούν 22 11:26 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 john john    1449 Ιούν 22 17:52 gnujump_1.0.8-1_amd64.changes
-rw-r--r-- 1 john john 1560574 Ιούν 22 17:52 gnujump_1.0.8-1_amd64.deb
-rw-rw-r-- 1 john john    9228 Ιούν 22 17:52 gnujump_1.0.8-1.debian.tar.xz
-rw-rw-r-- 1 john john     885 Ιούν 22 17:52 gnujump_1.0.8-1.dsc
-rw-rw-r-- 1 john john 2508641 Ιούλ 24  2012 gnujump_1.0.8.orig.tar.gz
-rw-rw-r-- 1 john john 1814056 Ιούν 22 17:41 gnujump_1.0.8.orig.tar.xz

Checking the result

1. View the information related to the package file:

   $ dpkg -I /var/cache/pbuilder/result/gnujump_1.0.8-1_amd64.deb
    new debian package, version 2.0.
    size 1560574 bytes: control archive=5550 bytes.
        419 bytes,    11 lines      control              
      18390 bytes,   233 lines      md5sums              
    Package: gnujump
    Version: 1.0.8-1
    Architecture: amd64
    Maintainer: John Doe 
    Installed-Size: 2355
    Depends: libc6 (>= 2.14), libgl1-mesa-glx | libgl1, libsdl-image1.2 (>= 1.2.10), libsdl-mixer1.2, libsdl1.2debian (>= 1.2.11)
    Section: games
    Priority: optional
    Description: <insert up to 60 chars description>
     <insert long description, indented with spaces>

As you can see our work is not finished. We need to add a description in ***debian/control*** and rebuild it.

2. Check the contents of the package file:

   $ dpkg -I /var/cache/pbuilder/result/gnujump_1.0.8-1_amd64.deb

Install the package

Now we can install the package:

$ sudo dpkg -i /var/cache/pbuilder/result/gnujump_1.0.8-1_amd64.deb

Now run the **`gnujump`** software and check if it works.

This is not the whole story of course. You have to check the package against [Lintian]( “Lintian Standards Checker”) to see if it complies with the [Debian Policy]( “Debian Policy”). And if it’s not compliant, you may need to use [Quilt]( “Quilt Patch Management”) to patch it. You will need to fill ***debian/watch*** so you can track updates on the upstream with **`uscan`**. The work of a Debian packager never ends.

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This guide is a practical session on how to modify an existing debian package, when the version is not included in the current release. It is based on the excellent packaging tutorial and practical sessions of [Lucas Nussbaum]( “Lucas Nussbaum website”).

We are going to download a source deb package, build it without modifications, modify it, patch it, rebuild it and in the end, install it in our system.


* A recent Debian or Ubuntu system.

Installation of development packages

$ sudo apt-get -y install build-essential debhelper devscripts packaging-dev debian-keyring

Get the source from the debian repos

$ dget

After that you should see these files under the current directory:

$ ls
grep_2.21-1.debian.tar.bz2  grep_2.21-1.dsc  grep_2.21.orig.tar.xz

* **grep_2.21-1.dsc**: Package’s debian source control file.
* **grep_2.21.orig.tar.xz**: Original source.
* **grep_2.21-1.debian.tar.bz2**: Debian files and patches.

Unpack the source

The `dpkg-source` file will unpack the original and debian tarballs and apply the debian patches, if available.

$ dpkg-source -x grep_2.21-1.dsc

Download build dependencies

$ sudo apt-get -y build-dep grep

Build the unmodified package

Change into the source tree and run `debuild`. We are using the `-us` and `-uc` flags to suppress warnings about signing.

$ cd grep-2.21/
$ debuild -us -uc

It doesn’t take long before this package is build. In the parent directory you will find three more files:

* **grep_2.21-1_amd64.deb**: the newly created deb package file.
* ****: the build log. You can use this to check for errors or warnings.
* **grep_2.21-1_amd64.changes**: Debian applied changes.

Modify the package

I suggest you do not touch the source, unless you fancy spending your day debugging. We will simply make some modifications on the ***debian/changelog*** and ***debian/rules*** files.

1. Add the `–with-gnu-ld` flag in the **DEB_CONFIGURE_EXTRA_FLAGS** line of the ***debian/rules*** file.

The `–with-gnu-ld` is a trivial change and shouldn’t break anything during build. Find this line:

DEB_CONFIGURE_EXTRA_FLAGS += –without-included-regex

And change it to this:

   DEB_CONFIGURE_EXTRA_FLAGS += --without-included-regex --with-gnu-ld

2. Update the ***changelog*** file.

We are going to use the `dch` utility which is simply a wrapper around your default editor, with changelog syntax checking. Run the following command in the source tree:

   $ DEBFULLNAME="John Doe" DEBEMAIL="" dch -i

Make the following changes (in bold) the ***debian/changelog*** file:

   grep (2.21-1ubuntu1) experimental; urgency=low

     * Support for GNU ld linker.
    -- John Doe   Fri, 19 Jun 2015 13:01:37 +0300

Note how the name and email of the patcher have been automatically inserted in the changelog entry. That’s because we defined the **DEBFULLNAME** and **DEBEMAIL** variables in the shell that runs `dch`.

Rebuild the modified package

$ debuild -us -uc

You will see the following error:

dpkg-source: error: aborting due to unexpected upstream changes, see /tmp/grep_2.21-1ubuntu1.diff.eYCcPk
dpkg-source: info: you can integrate the local changes with dpkg-source –commit
dpkg-buildpackage: error: dpkg-source -b grep-2.21 gave error exit status 2
debuild: fatal error at line 1376:

The above error happens because the `–with-gnu-ld` flag makes changes to the upstream source and this is against the Debian policy.

Apply patches for Policy compliance

$ cp /tmp/grep_2.21-1ubuntu1.diff.eYCcPk debian/patches/90-enable-gnu-ld.patch
$ echo 90-enable-gnu-ld.patch >> debian/patches/series

It is considered a good practice to edit the patch, add a description and a short summary and fill the headers related to the [Patch Tagging Guidelines]( “Patch Tagging Guidelines”).

This method is only a workaround. The correct way to deal with patches is [Quilt]( “Quilt Howto”).

Final rebuild of the modified package

$ debuild -us -uc

You will see five additional files in the parent directory:

* **grep_2.21-1ubuntu1_amd64.deb**: the new deb package file.
* **grep_2.21-1ubuntu1.debian.tar.bz2**: the new **debian** directory tarball.
* **grep_2.21-1ubuntu1.dsc**: the new debian source control file.
* ****: the build log.
* **grep_2.21-1ubuntu1_amd64.changes**: the changes file.

Checking the differences between original and new

The following commands will find the differences in the **debian source control** and **changes** files:

$ diff ../*.changes
$ diff ../*dsc

Install the new package

$ sudo debi

Check if grep is the correct version:

$ grep --version
grep (GNU grep) 2.21
Copyright (C) 2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later .
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

Written by Mike Haertel and others, see .

All done. If you have reached so far congratulations! You have successfully rebuilt a Debian package.

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More than a year or so, I have been the proud owner of a first generation [Utilite ARM]( “Utilite”) appliance. But the harsh Cyprus summer, hit it hard and the microSD circuit stop working. I could no longer boot alternative systems on microSD cards. All I was left with, was the stock system with an aging Ubuntu 12.04 ARM port.

Enter the U-Boot

[Das U-Boot]( “U-Boot”) is a boot loader that targets mostly embedded systems. Many ARM appliances, including the Utilite, are using U-Boot to boot their OS.

I entered the U-Boot environment to do some checks about the mmc issue. To do that just press the ‘[any]( “Userfriendly webcomic”)’ key when you see the following message:

Hit any key to stop autoboot:

Then type the following command in your U-boot terminal:

CM-FX6 # mmc info
Card did not respond to voltage select!

That message does not look very healthy! When I tried to insert a microSD card, I got this message repeatedly, in the U-Boot terminal:

EHCI timed out on TD – token=0x80008c80

The keyboard stopped responding and I had no other option than to force restart. I think now we have enough evidence to say that the microSD circuitry went FUBAR. At this point you should probably contact CompuLab for a replacement.

But this is not what I did. The appliance has 3 USB ports available, so why not use them? This will have the added benefit of USB devices being more accessible, than the hard to access microSD slot.

Well, the original U-Boot image that the Utilite was shipped with, did not had USB boot support. This has long changed and the nice folks at CompuLab have built a newer version that supports booting from USB storage devices.

Upgrading U-Boot

First download the most recent [U-Boot updater]( “Utilite U-Boot Updater”) on your Utilite appliance:

$ wget

Check the MD5 sum:

$ echo a79e492f3eb626c770c5185cda0edfec ; md5sum utilite-updater.tar.bz2 
a79e492f3eb626c770c5185cda0edfec  utilite-updater.tar.bz2

Extract the archive:

$ tar xvjf utilite-updater.tar.bz2

Run the updater:

$ sudo ./ 

CompuLab CM-FX6 (Utilite) boot loader update utility 2.2 (Feb 8 2015)

>> Checking for utilities... 
>> ...Done 
>> Checking that board is CM-FX6 (Utilite)... 
>> ...Done 
Please input firmware file path (or press ENTER to use "cm-fx6-firmware"): 

Just press ‘Enter’ after the above prompt. Then answer ‘Yes’ (**y**) to the following questions:

>> Looking for boot loader image file: cm-fx6-firmware 
>> ...Found 
>> Looking for SPI flash: mtd0 
>> ...Found 
>> Current U-Boot version in SPI flash:	U-Boot 2014.10-cm-fx6-2.1 (Jan 19 2015 - 11:28:10) 
>> New U-Boot version in file:		U-Boot 2014.10-cm-fx6-2.1 (Jan 19 2015 - 11:28:10) (500K) 
>> Proceed with the update? 
1) Yes
2) No
#? y  
** Do not power off or reset your computer!!! 
>> Erasing SPI flash... 
Erasing 4 Kibyte @ bf000 -- 100 % complete 
>> ...Done 
>> Writing boot loader to the SPI flash... 
>> ...Done 
>> Checking boot loader in the SPI flash... 
>> ...Done 
>> Boot loader update succeeded!
** Resetting U-Boot environment will override any changes made to the environment! 
>> Reset U-Boot environment (recommended)? 
1) Yes
2) No
#? y
>> U-boot environment will be reset on restart. 
>> Done!

Then reboot the appliance:

$ sudo reboot

It is a good idea to keep a backup of the original U-Boot configuration for future reference:

$ sudo fw_printenv > utilite.uboot.orig

Enhancing the USB boot setup

If you study the above U-Boot setup you will find that the USB config works only if you have an option **boot.scr** script under the first partition of your USB. This excludes USB drives with only the uImage file. That means that you cannot even boot the Utilite SSD installer if you burn it on USB, since it does not have a **boot.scr** script.

I’ve been playing around with the U-Boot environment and I came out to this configuration:

setenv bootcmd run setupmmcboot;mmc dev ${storagedev};if mmc rescan; then run trybootsrz;fi;run setupusbboot;if usb start; then if run loadscript; then run bootscript;else run usbbootargs;if run loadkernel; then run doboot;else setenv bootargs;fi;fi;fi; run setupsataboot;if sata init; then run trybootsmz;fi;run setupnandboot;run nandboot;
setenv usbroot /dev/sdb2
setenv usbrootdelay=1
setenv usbbootargs=setenv bootargs root=${usbroot} rootdelay=${usbrootdelay}

If you don’t want to configure the above commands manually, you can download my custom U-boot environment updater and the patch I prepared:

Download the U-Boot environment update shell script:

$ wget
$ chmox +x

Download the U-boot custom configuration:

$ wget

Now load the custom configuration into the U-Boot environment:

$ sudo ./ setup-usb-boot-utilite.uboot

If something goes wrong you can restore your original configuration using the original configuration we saved earlier:

$ sudo ./ utilite.uboot.orig

The U-Boot environment updater will also create a backup file, with the current U-Boot environment configuration, just before the update:

$ ls *.bak

Test with the Utilite SSD installer

Now it is time to test our new configuration.

First download the SSD installer:

$ wget

Check the MD5 sum:

$ echo 82eeb54c4d5245c60fd82c3e983d10e9 ; md5sum cl-installer_utilite-2_kernel-6.3_2014-12-17.img.xz
82eeb54c4d5245c60fd82c3e983d10e9  cl-installer_utilite-2_kernel-6.3_2014-12-17.img.xz

Extract it:

$ unxz cl-installer_utilite-2_kernel-6.3_2014-12-17.img.xz

This will extract a **cl-installer_utilite-2_kernel-6.3_2014-12-17.img** image file in the working directory.

Now comes the tricky part. We will load the image in a USB device. Make sure you choose the correct device! The **dd** tool we are using below, is a heartless beast that will chew the data out of every device you select in its **of=** flag. If by mistake you give your internal disk instead of the USB, you will lose your partitions and data! You have been warned!

So after you select a USB (one that does not have any data you need) insert it in your Linux workstation. Then try the following check to find out the device name of the USB drive:

$ dmesg | tail -n20
[61425.197050] mce: [Hardware Error]: Machine check events logged
[71124.693498] compiz[1853]: segfault at 80000000 ip 0000000080000000 sp 00007ffc438c50a8 error 14
[73897.971544] usb 1-2: new high-speed USB device number 10 using xhci_hcd
[73898.105247] usb 1-2: New USB device found, idVendor=0951, idProduct=1665
[73898.105254] usb 1-2: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
[73898.105257] usb 1-2: Product: DataTraveler 2.0
[73898.105260] usb 1-2: Manufacturer: Kingston
[73898.105262] usb 1-2: SerialNumber: 50E54951351BBE70A9455C5B
[73898.106083] usb-storage 1-2:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
[73898.106370] scsi host8: usb-storage 1-2:1.0
[73899.187591] scsi 8:0:0:0: Direct-Access     Kingston DataTraveler 2.0 PMAP PQ: 0 ANSI: 6
[73899.187848] sd 8:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg2 type 0
[73900.521857] sd 8:0:0:0: [sdb] 15335424 512-byte logical blocks: (7.85 GB/7.31 GiB)
[73900.522528] sd 8:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
[73900.522531] sd 8:0:0:0: [sdb] Mode Sense: 23 00 00 00
[73900.523124] sd 8:0:0:0: [sdb] No Caching mode page found
[73900.523126] sd 8:0:0:0: [sdb] Assuming drive cache: write through
[73900.562834]  sdb: sdb1 sdb2
[73900.565248] sd 8:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI removable disk
[73903.203134] EXT4-fs (sdb2): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null)

So the device name is **sdb** and it has two partitions: **sda1** and **sda2**. Check if these partitions have been mounted automatically:

$ mount | grep sdb
/dev/sdb2 on /media/theodotos/rootfs type ext4 (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,data=ordered,uhelper=udisks2)
/dev/sdb1 on /media/theodotos/boot type vfat (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,uid=1000,gid=1000,fmask=0022,dmask=0022,codepage=437,iocharset=iso8859-1,shortname=mixed,showexec,utf8,flush,errors=remount-ro,uhelper=udisks2)

They are mounted. We need to unmount them before dumping the image on the device:

$ sudo umount /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdb2

Now we are ready to run **dd** (device dump) against the USB drive:

$ sudo dd if=~/Downloads/cl-installer_utilite-2_kernel-6.3_2014-12-17.img of=/dev/sdb bs=1M

You are not going to see any progress bar during the device dump. Just be patient and let the utility take its time.

After **dd** finishes and returns back to the shell, safely remove the USB drive and try it on Utilite. If you reboot the appliance you should see the LXDE desktop of the Utilite installer. Unplug it and you are back to your Ubuntu, on the internal drive.

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