On May 2019 we did a presentation at University of Nicosia about digital rights and horror stories regarding their violations. We talked about ways of how technology can be used against us, and about actions and tools we can use to protect ourselves.

You can find the presentation material here:

Horror Stories from Digiland

Here you can find some references that help in the creation of the presentation. This is a shorter version of an earlier presentation I did in greek so the references may not match exactly to this one.

ECHELON

Trailblazer

Sony Rootkit

Lower Merion High School

Afgan War Logs

PRISM

The Fappening

No cloud

Ashley Maddison

VW Scandal

Vault 7

Dropbox

Tesla Cars

Mobile Telephony

Truecaller

Smart TVs

Facebook

Target

Apple

Microsoft

Cabridge Analytica

Free-Basics

Backdoors – Malware

HTTPS Interception

Brain decoding – fMRI

Political Nightmares

Net Neutrality

So why should I care?

Protect yourself

Alternative social media

Protections in Telephony

Protection in Email

Other Solutions

GDPR

Digital Rights Organizations

Rysiek\’s Law

Digital Rights in Cyprus

Digital Rights

Orwell vs Huxley

Στις 11 Απριλίου 2018 κάναμε μια παρουσίαση στο Πανεπιστήμιο Νεάπολις Πάφου σχετικά με τα ψηφιακά δικαιώματα και εφιαλτικές ιστορίες παραβιάσεών τους. Μιλήσαμε για τρόπους με τους οποίους μπορεί η τεχνολογία να χρησιμοποιηθεί εναντίον μας και μεθόδους και εργαλεία που μπορούμε να χρησιμοποιήσουμε για να προστατευθούμε.

Το υλικό της παρουσίασης μπορείτε να το βρείτε εδώ:

Ιστορίες Τρόμου από την Ψηφιοχώρα

Ακολουθούν παραπομπές που βοήθησαν στην δημιουργία του υλικού της παρουσίασης:

ECHELON

Trailblazer

Sony Rootkit

Γυμνάσιο Lower Merion

Πολεμικά ημερολόγια Αφγανιστάν

PRISM

The Fappening

No cloud

Ashley Maddison

VW Scandal

Vault 7

Dropbox

Tesla Cars

Κινητή τηλεφωνία

Truecaller

«Έξυπνες» Τηλεοράσεις

Facebook

Target

Apple

Microsoft

Cabridge Analytica

Free-Basics

Κερκόπορτες – Backdoors – Malware

HTTPS Interception

Αποκωδικοποίηση Μυαλού – fMRI

Εφιάλτες σε Πολιτικό Επίπεδο

Δικτυακή Ουδετερότητα

Και τι με νοιάζει εμένα δηλαδή;

Ατομικά Μέτρα προστασίας

Εναλλακτικά κοινωνικά δίκτυα

Προστασία στην τηλεφωνία

Προστασία στο Email

Άλλες Λύσεις

GDPR

Οργανισμοί για ψηφιακά δικαιώματα

Nόμος του Rysiek

Ψηφιακά δικαιώματα στην Κύπρο

Ψηφιακά δικαιώματα

Orwell vs Huxley

In this guide we will be installing Debian 9 (aka stretch) on a physical server with 4 disks. The role of this machice is to be used as a Storage/NAS system. We will create a software RAID 10 setup, with LVM and LUKS full disk encryption. Our goals:

  • Install a Debian 9 with RAID10/LVM/LUKS.
  • Secure SSH.
  • Enable Firewall (UFW).
  • Setup bonding with the two network cards.
  • Setup remote system unlock with dropbear and initramfs.
  • Setup disk-monitoring with smartmontools and mdadm.
  • Setup kexec for faster reboots.

Computer specs

  • Type: HP ProLiant MicroServer
  • CPU: AMD Turion(tm) II Neo N40L Dual-Core Processor
  • RAM: 2GB
  • Disks: 4x3TB SATA
  • Network:
    • Broadcom Limited NetXtreme BCM5723 Gigabit Ethernet PCIe (on board)
    • Intel Corporation 82574L Gigabit Network Connection (extra)

Assumptions

  • Server IP: 192.168.1.10
  • Netmask: 255.255.255.0
  • Gateway IP: 192.168.1.1
  • DNS IP: 192.168.1.1
  • Hostname: storage.example.com

Install Debian stretch

Basic Settings

It would probably be more clear if there were screenshots for each step, but this was an installation on a physical server and taking photos for each step, opposes my laziness :). Just follow the instructions and you will be fine.

  • Choose: Install
  • Language: English
  • Country: other
  • Europe: Cyprus
  • Country to base default locale settings: United States
  • Keymap to use: American English
  • Primary network interface: enp3s0: Broadcom Limeted NetXtream BCM5723 Gigabit Ethernet PCIe
  • Let it get an IP from DHCP
  • Hostname: storage
  • Domain name: example.com
  • Root password: SomethingBigAndUnpredictable
  • Re-enter password to verify: SomethingBigAndUnpredictable
  • Full name: Sysadmin
  • Username: admin
  • Choose a password for the new user: AlsoSomethingBigAndUnpredictable
  • Re-enter password to verify: AlsoSomethingBigAndUnpredictable
  • Select your time zone: Asia/Nicosia
  • Partitioning method: Manual

Feel free to adjust the above according to your own preferences.

Partitioning

There are 4 disks of 3TB each (3.0 TB SATA):

  • SCSI1 (0,0,0) (sda)
  • SCSI2 (0,0,0) (sdb)
  • SCSI3 (0,0,0) (sdc)
  • SCSI4 (0,0,0) (sdd)

Not really SCSI but SATA in fact.

Partition the devices

Then create a raid partition for /boot:

  • Select the free space of sda and ‘Enter’
  • Create a new partition
  • New partition size: 512 MB
  • Location of new partition: Beginning
  • Use as: physical volume for RAID
  • Done setting up the partition

Lastly create the raid partition to be used by the encrypted volume:

  • Select the free space of sda and ‘Enter’
  • Create a new partition
  • New partition size: 3.0 TB
  • Location of new partition: Beginning
  • Use as: physical volume for RAID
  • Done setting up the partition

Repeat the above steps for sdb, sdc and sdd.

Setup Software RAID 10

First select ‘Configure software RAID’ and follow these steps:

  • Write the changes to the storage devices and configure RAID? Yes

The we create the software RAID (MD) devices. First we create device md0 for /boot:

  • Create MD Device
  • RAID10
  • Number of active devices inn the RAID10 array: 4
  • Number of spare devices inn the RAID10 array: 0
  • Active devices for the RAID10 array (use ‘Space bar’ to select)
    • /dev/sda2
    • /dev/sdb2
    • /dev/sdc2
    • /dev/sdd2
  • Press ‘Continue’ when done.

Then we create the software RAID device to be used for the encrypted volume (md1):

  • Create MD Device
  • RAID10
  • Number of active devices inn the RAID10 array: 4
  • Number of spare devices inn the RAID10 array: 0
  • Active devices for the RAID10 array (use the ‘Space bar’ to select)
    • /dev/sda3
    • /dev/sdb3
    • /dev/sdc3
    • /dev/sdd3
  • Press ‘Continue’ when done.
  • Press ‘Finish’ when done.

Create the /boot volume

When done press ‘Finish partitioning and write changes to disk’.`

When finished you will see a ‘RAID10 device #0 1GB Software RAID device’:

  • Select: #1 1.0GB
  • Use as: Ext4 journaling file system
  • Mount point: /boot
  • Done setting up the partition

Setup the encrypted volume

We will be using the software RAID /dev/md1 device for the encrypted volume.

Now select ‘Configure encrypted volumes’ and follow these steps:

  • Write the changes to disk and configure encrypted volumes? Yes
  • Create encrypted volumes

  • Select: /dev/md1
  • Erase data: yes (this will take a long time)
  • Done setting up the partition

  • Write the changes to disk and configure encrypted volumes? Yes

  • Finish
  • Encryption passphrase: MyVeryLongEncryptionPassphrase
  • Re-enter the passphrase to verify: MyVeryLongEncryptionPassphrase
  • Setup LVM

    Next we select the ‘Configure the Logical Volume Manager’ option and follow these steps:

    • Write the changes to disks and configure LVM? Yes
  • Create volume group

  • Volume group name: VG00
  • Devices for the new volume group:
    • /dev/mapper/md1_crypt
  • Then we create the Logical Volumes (LV). First let’s create a SWAP volume:

    • Create logical volume
    • Volume group: VG00
    • Logical volume name: SWAP
    • Logical volume size: 2048MB (2G is more than enough for this system)

    Lastly we create the system (ROOT) volume. On an enterprise installation we may want to use different volumes for /usr, /home, /var, etc but for a home installation we will be fine to use just one.

    • Create logical volume
    • Volume group: VG00
    • Logical volume name: ROOT
    • Logical volume size: 5996818MB (All available space)

    Press ‘Finish’ when done.

    Start the installation

    After all the steps are completed these Logical Volumes will be present on the system:

    • LVM VG VG00, LV ROOT 0 6.0 TB
    • LVM VG VG00, LV SWAP 0 2.0 GB

    Create the ROOT filesystem

    Under the ‘LVM VG VG00, LV ROOT 0 6.0 TB’ line select the ‘#1 6.0TB’ option:

    • Use as: Ext4 journaling file system
    • Mount point: /
    • Done setting up this partition

    Create the SWAP space

    Under the ‘LVM VG VG00, LV SWAP 0 2.0 GB’ line select the ‘#1 2.0GB’ option:

    • Use as: swap area
    • Done setting up this partition

    Now we are ready to write the changes and start the installation. Press the ‘Finish partitioning and write changes to disk’ option to continue:

    • Write the changes to disks? Yes

    Wait for the base install to finish. Then select a country close to you. No debian mirrors in Cyprus so I use UK:

    • Debian archive mirror country: United Kingdom
    • Debian archive mirror: ftp.uk.debian.org
    • HTTP proxy: (none)

    Wait for the APT configuration to Finish.

    • Participate in the package usage survey: no
  • Choose software to install:

    • SSH server
    • standard system utilities
  • Wait while software is installing

    • Install the GRUB boot loader to the master boot record.
    • Device for boot loader installation:
      • /dev/sda

    Wait for the installation to finish and reboot. Remember to remove the USB during the reboot cycle.

    Post install steps

    During start-up you will see the ‘Please unlock md1_crypt’ prompt. Type your LUKS passphrase to unlock the disk and continue.

    Update and Upgrade

    Login as root:

    # apt update && apt -y dist-upgrade
    

    Install essential packages

    # apt -y install vim htop multitail ntp byobu ufw unattended-upgrades downtimed
    

    Secure ssh

    You need to generate an SSH key pair on you PC, if you don’t have one (you should!):

    $ ssh-keygen -b 4096
    

    Copy the public key:

    $ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
    

    Paste the public key at the end of the /root/.ssh/authorized_keys file in your server and try to login from your PC:

    $ ssh root@192.168.1.10
    

    Some final adjustments on your SSH config (/etc/ssh/sshd_config). Change these values:

    Port 2233
    PasswordAuthentication no
    

    Restart SSH:

    # systemctl restart ssh.service
    

    Enable the UFW firewall

    We are using port 2233 for SSH so we need to allow that and enable the firewall:

    # ufw allow 2233/tcp
    # ufw enable
    

    Setup bonding

    Since we have two ethernet cards, we may take advantage of thr Linux bonding feature and join them as one. We will be using the Adaptive load balancing mode which provides load balancing of transmit, load balancing of receive for IPv4 and requires no configuration from the switch side.

    First we need to install ifenslave:

    # apt -y install ifenslave
    

    Set up this in /etc/network/interfaces:

    # This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
    # and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).
    
    source /etc/network/interfaces.d/*
    
    # The loopback network interface
    auto lo
    iface lo inet loopback
    
    # enp2s0 is manually configured, and slave to the "bond0" bonded NIC
    auto enp2s0
    iface eth0 inet manual
        bond-master bond0
    
    # enp3s01 is also manually configured, thus creating a 2-link bond.
    auto enp3s0
    iface eth1 inet manual
        bond-master bond0
    
    # bond0 is the bonded NIC and can be used like any other normal NIC.
    # bond0 is configured using static network information.
    auto bond0
    iface bond0 inet static
        address 192.168.1.10
        gateway 192.168.1.1
        netmask 255.255.255.0
    
        # bond0 uses adaptive load balancing
        bond-mode 6
        bond-miimon 100
        bond-slaves enp2s0 enp3s0
    

    An ifup bond0 should bring the bonded interface up. Or you can just reboot.

    Setup remote-unlock with dropbear

    The server will be a headless system, located in a difficult to access location. So we need a way to unlock it when a power failure occurs. The most convenient way to do this is to use a mandos server but convenience comes at a cost. A safer and easier way is to use dropbear during boot (initrd). The weak point of this solution is that the server will be basically offline until the sysadmin manually unlocks it, to boot.

    First we install dropbear for initrd:

    # apt -y install dropbear-initramfs
    

    Then we set a custom ssh port for dropbear. This better be different than the custom ssh port we used earlier. Change the dropbear port to 2244 in /etc/dropbear-initramfs/config:

    DROPBEAR_OPTIONS="-p 2244"
    

    Add the static IP in the initramtools configuration (/etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf):

    IP=192.168.1.10::192.168.1.1:255.255.255.0:storage:enp3s0:off
    

    Copy the authorized_keys file in /etc/dropbear-initramfs:

    # cp /root/.ssh/authorized_keys /etc/dropbear-initramfs/
    

    Regenerate the initrd file:

    # update-initramfs -u
    

    Now reboot and ssh to it to test it:

    $ ssh -p 2244 root@192.168.1.10
    

    If your pubkeys are in place you will enter a busybox shell. Enter the crypt-unlock command, supply your unlock passphrase and the system will boot to the encrypted system.

    Setup a local MTA for notifications

    We will be using our main mailserver as a smarthost for mail to go through.

    Install the postfix MTA and the mail utility:

    # apt -y install postfix mailutils
    

    Answer these questions:

    • General type of mail configuration: Internet with smarthost
    • System mail name: storage.example.com
    • SMTP relay host (blank for none): smtp.example.com

    Test it:

    # echo 'Testing #1' | mail -s 'Test #1' user@example.com
    

    If you get a mail in your mailbox then everything is set. If not extra configuration may be needed on the smarthost. Contact the sysadmin of the smarthost, or check the logs if you access to it.

    Setup pro-active disk monitoring

    Install smartmontools:

    # apt -y install smartmontools
    

    Enable S.M.A.R.T, offline testing, attribute autosave, short and long test on all 4 devices. Add these lines in /etc/smartd.conf:

    /dev/sda -a -d sat -o on -S on -s (S/../.././02|L/../../6/03) -m user@example.com -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner
    /dev/sdb -a -d sat -o on -S on -s (S/../.././02|L/../../6/03) -m user@example.com -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner
    /dev/sdc -a -d sat -o on -S on -s (S/../.././02|L/../../6/03) -m user@example.com -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner
    /dev/sdd -a -d sat -o on -S on -s (S/../.././02|L/../../6/03) -m user@example.com -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner
    

    Restart smartmontools:

    # systemctl restart smartmontools.service
    

    Setup Software RAID10 monitoring

    We also need to setup monitoring for the software raid. Add your email address in the /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf file:

    MAILADDR user@example.com
    

    Restart the mdmonitor service:

    # systemctl restart mdmonitor.service
    

    Setup kexec for faster reboots

    Kexec is a Linux kernel mechanism that can load a fresh kernel from a running system. This results in a “reboot” without in fact rebooting the computer. The system loads a new kernel, the system appears “rebooted” but skipping the BIOS?UEFI initialization, thus resulting in faster reboots.

    Install kexec-tools:

    # apt -y install kexec-tools
    

    The ‘Should kexec-tools handle reboots (sysvinit only)?’ question is related only to sysvinit systems. Since we are using systemd, it has no effect in our case.

    Now if you want to reboot instead of running reboot you can run systemctl kexec. The latter command will reboot the system without going though BIOS/UEFI, POST etc and your system downtime is minimized.

    And we are done! Store your server in a protected location, add a UPS for power backup and you are ready.

    References

    • https://wiki.debian.org/Bonding
    • https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UbuntuBonding
    • https://www.theo-andreou.org/?p=1579
    • https://wiki.recompile.se/wiki/Mandos
    • http://forums.ayksolutions.com/forum/documentation/knowledgebase/general-server-questions/641-proactively-monitoring-hard-drive-health-using-smartd

    Ceph is a distributed open source storage solution that supports Object Storage, Block Storage and File Storage.

    Other open source distributed storage systems are GlusterFS and HDFS.

    In this guide, we describe how to setup a basic Ceph Cluster for Block Storage. We have 25 nodes on our setup. The masternode is a MASS Region and Rack controller. The rest of the nodes are Ubuntu 16.04 deployed through MAAS. The recommended filesystem for Ceph is XFS and this is what is used on the nodes.

    This guide is based on the Quick Installation guide from the Ceph Documentation. This guide uses the ceph-deploy tool which is a relatively quick way to setup Ceph, especially for newbies. There is also the Manual Installation, deployment through Ansible and juju.

    Prerequisites

    Topology

    • 1 deploy node (masternode). MAAS region and rack controler is installed plus Ansible
    • 3 monitor nodes (node01,node11,node24). Ubuntu 16.04 on XFS deployed through MAAS
    • 20 OSD nodes (node02-10,12-23).

    Create an Ubuntu user on masternode

    It would be of convenience to create an ubuntu user on the masternode. with passwordless sudo access:

    $ sudo useradd -m -s /bin/bash ubuntu
    

    Run visudo and give passwordless sudo access to the ubuntu user:

    ubuntu  ALL=NOPASSWD:ALL
    

    Generate an SSH key pair for the ubuntu user:

    $ ssh-keygen -b 4096
    Generating public/private rsa key pair.
    Enter file in which to save the key (/home/ubuntu/.ssh/id_rsa): 
    Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
    Enter same passphrase again: 
    Your identification has been saved in /home/ubuntu/.ssh/id_rsa.
    Your public key has been saved in /home/ubuntu/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
    The key fingerprint is:
    SHA256:t1zWURVk7j6wJPkA3VmbcHtAKh3EB0kyanORVbiiBkU ubuntu@masternode
    The key's randomart image is:
    +---[RSA 4096]----+
    |       .E +**B=*=|
    |        ..o==oOo+|
    |       .+.o.o=.=.|
    |      .. oo.o....|
    |       .S..=oo.. |
    |        oo += +  |
    |       .  o  o o |
    |                .|
    |                 |
    +----[SHA256]-----+
    

    Deploy the /home/ubuntu/.ssh/id_rsa.pub pubkey on all the nodes (append in /home/ubuntu/.ssh/authorized_keys). You could add this pubkey on the MAAS user before deploying Ubuntu 16.04 on the nodes.

    Set /etc/hosts

    $ for ID in {01..24}; do echo "$(dig +short node${ID}.maas @127.0.0.1) node${ID}.maas node${ID}"; done > nodes.txt
    

    It should look like this:

    192.168.10.28 node01.maas node01
    192.168.10.29 node02.maas node02
    192.168.10.30 node03.maas node03
    192.168.10.31 node04.maas node04
    192.168.10.32 node05.maas node05
    192.168.10.33 node06.maas node06
    192.168.10.34 node07.maas node07
    192.168.10.35 node08.maas node08
    192.168.10.36 node09.maas node09
    192.168.10.37 node10.maas node10
    192.168.10.38 node11.maas node11
    192.168.10.39 node12.maas node12
    192.168.10.40 node13.maas node13
    192.168.10.41 node14.maas node14
    192.168.10.42 node16.maas node16
    192.168.10.43 node17.maas node17
    192.168.10.44 node18.maas node18
    192.168.10.45 node19.maas node19
    192.168.10.46 node20.maas node20
    192.168.10.47 node21.maas node21
    192.168.10.48 node22.maas node22
    192.168.10.49 node23.maas node23
    192.168.10.50 node24.maas node24
    

    Now you can append the result in /etc/hosts:

    $ cat nodes.txt | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts
    

    Ansible setup

    Use this setup in /etc/ansible/hosts on masternode:

    [masternode]
    masternode
    
    [nodes]
    node01
    node02
    node03
    node04
    node05
    node06
    node07
    node08
    node09
    node10
    node11
    node12
    node13
    node14
    node15
    node16
    node17
    node18
    node19
    node20
    node21
    node22
    node23
    node24
    
    [ceph-mon]
    node01
    node11
    node24
    
    [ceph-osd]
    node02
    node03
    node04
    node05
    node06
    node07
    node08
    node09
    node10
    node12
    node13
    node14
    node15
    node16
    node17
    node18
    node19
    node20
    node21
    node22
    node23
    

    Install python on all the nodes

    $ for ID in {01..24}
    > do
    >  ssh node${ID} "sudo apt -y install python-minimal"
    > done
    

    Ensure time synchronization of the nodes

    Install the theodotos/debian-ntp role from Ansible Galaxy:

    $ sudo ansible-galaxy install theodotos.debian-ntp
    

    Create a basic playbook ntp-init.yml:

    ---
    - hosts: nodes
      remote_user: ubuntu
      become: yes
      roles:
         - { role: theodotos.debian-ntp, ntp.server: masternode }
    

    Apply the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook ntp-init.yml
    

    Verify that the monitor nodes are time synchronized:

    $ ansible ceph-mon -a 'timedatectl'
    node11 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
          Local time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30 UTC
      Universal time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30 UTC
            RTC time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30
           Time zone: Etc/UTC (UTC, +0000)
     Network time on: yes
    NTP synchronized: yes
     RTC in local TZ: no
    
    node24 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
          Local time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30 UTC
      Universal time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30 UTC
            RTC time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30
           Time zone: Etc/UTC (UTC, +0000)
     Network time on: yes
    NTP synchronized: yes
     RTC in local TZ: no
    
    node01 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
          Local time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30 UTC
      Universal time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30 UTC
            RTC time: Fri 2017-04-28 08:06:30
           Time zone: Etc/UTC (UTC, +0000)
     Network time on: yes
    NTP synchronized: yes
     RTC in local TZ: no
    

    Check also the OSD nodes:

    $ ansible ceph-osd -a 'timedatectl'
    

    Install Ceph

    Install ceph-deploy

    On masternode:

    $ sudo apt install ceph-deploy
    

    Create a new cluster and set the monitor nodes (must be odd numbered):

    $ ceph-deploy new node01 node11 node24
    

    Install ceph on master node and all other nodes:

    $ ceph-deploy install masternode node{01..24}
    

    Deploy the monitors and gather the keys:

    $ ceph-deploy mon create-initial
    

    Prepare the OSD nodes

    Create the OSD directories

    Create the OSD directories on the OSD nodes:

    $ I=0;
    $ for ID in {02..10} {12..14} {16..23}
    > do 
    >  ssh -l ubuntu node${ID} "sudo mkdir /var/local/osd${I}"
    >  I=$((${I}+1))
    > done;
    

    Verify that the OSD directories are created:

    $ ansible ceph-osd -a "ls /var/local" | cut -d\| -f1 | xargs -n2 | sort
    node02 osd0
    node03 osd1
    node04 osd2
    node05 osd3
    node06 osd4
    node07 osd5
    node08 osd6
    node09 osd7
    node10 osd8
    node12 osd9
    node13 osd10
    node14 osd11
    node16 osd12
    node17 osd13
    node18 osd14
    node19 osd15
    node20 osd16
    node21 osd17
    node22 osd18
    node23 osd19
    

    Nodes 01, 11 and 24 are excluded because those are the monitor nodes.

    Fix OSD permissions

    Because of some bug we need to change the OSD directories owneship to ceph:ceph. Otherwise you will get this:

    ** ERROR: error creating empty object store in /var/local/osd0: (13) Permission denied
    

    Change the ownership of the OSD directories on the OSD nodes:

    $ I=0;
    $ for ID in {02..10} {12..14} {16..23}
    > do 
    >   ssh -l ubuntu node${ID} "sudo chown ceph:ceph /var/local/osd${I}"
    >   I=$((${I}+1))
    > done;
    

    Prepare the OSDs

    $ I=0
    $ for ID in {02..10} {12..14} {16..23}
    > do
    >   ceph-deploy --username ubuntu osd prepare node${ID}:/var/local/osd${I}
    >   I=$((${I}+1))
    > done
    

    Activate the OSDs

    For nodes 02 – 10:

    $ I=0
    > for ID in {02..10} {12..14} {16..23}
    > do
    >   ceph-deploy --username ubuntu osd activate node${ID}:/var/local/osd${I}
    >   I=$((${I}+1))
    > done
    

    Deploy the configuration file and admin key

    Now we need to deploy the configuration file and admin key to the admin node and our Ceph nodes. This will save us from having to specify the monitor address and keyring every time we execute a Ceph cli command.

    $ ceph-deploy admin masternode node{01..24}
    

    Set the keyring to be world readable:

    $ sudo chmod +r /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring
    

    Test and verify

    $ ceph health
    HEALTH_WARN too few PGs per OSD (9 < min 30)
    HEALTH_ERR clock skew detected on mon.node11, mon.node24; 64 pgs are stuck inactive for more than 300 seconds; 64 pgs stuck inactive; 64 pgs stuck unclean; Monitor clock skew detected 
    

    Out newly build cluster is not healthy. We need to increase Placement Groups. The formula is the number_of_minimum_expected_PGs (30) times the number_of_OSDs (20) and rounded to the closest power of 2:

    30x20=500 => pg_num=512
    

    Increase PGs:

    $ ceph osd pool set rbd pg_num 512
    

    Now we run ceph health again:

    $ ceph health
    HEALTH_WARN pool rbd pg_num 512 > pgp_num 64
    

    Still some tweaking needs to be done. We need to adjust pgp_num to 512:

    $ ceph osd pool set rbd pgp_num 512
    

    And we are there at last:

    $ ceph health
    HEALTH_OK
    

    Create a Ceph Block Device device

    Check the available storage:

    $ ceph df
    MapGLOBAL:
        SIZE       AVAIL      RAW USED     %RAW USED 
        11151G     10858G         293G          2.63 
    POOLS:
        NAME     ID     USED     %USED     MAX AVAIL     OBJECTS 
        rbd      0       306         0         3619G           4 
    

    Now we need to create a RADOS Block Device (RBD) to hold our data.

    $ rbd create clusterdata --size 4T --image-feature layering
    

    Check the new block device:

    $ rbd ls -l
    NAME         SIZE PARENT FMT PROT LOCK 
    clusterdata 4096G          2
    

    Map the block device:

    $ sudo rbd map clusterdata --name client.admin
    /dev/rbd0
    

    Format the clusterdata device:

    $ sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/rbd0
    

    Mount the blobk device:

    $ mkdir /srv/clusterdata
    $ mount /dev/rbd0 /srv/clusterdata
    

    Now we have a block device for data that is distributed among the 21 storage nodes.

    Here’s is a summary of some useful monitoring and troubleshooting commands for ceph

    $ ceph health
    $ ceph health detail
    $ ceph status (ceph -s)
    $ ceph osd stat
    $ ceph osd tree
    $ ceph mon dump
    $ ceph mon stat
    $ ceph -w
    $ ceph quorum_status --format json-pretty
    $ ceph mon_status --format json-pretty
    $ ceph df
    

    If you run into trouble contact the awesome folks at the #ceph IRC channel, hosted on Open and Free Technology Community IRC network.

    Start over

    In case you messed up the procedure and you need to start over you can use the following commands:

    $ ceph-deploy purge masternode node{01..24}
    $ ceph-deploy purgedata masternode node{01..24}
    $ ceph-deploy forgetkeys
    $ for ID in {02..11} {11..23}; do ssh node${ID} "sudo rm -fr /var/local/osd*"; done
    $ rm ceph.conf ceph-deploy-ceph.log .cephdeploy.conf
    

    NOTE: this procedure will destroy your Ceph cluster along with all the data!

    Conclusions

    Using ceph-deploy maybe an easy way to get started with Ceph, but it does not provide much customization. For a more fine tuned setup you maybe better with the Manual Installation, even though there is a steeper learning curve.

    References

    • http://docs.ceph.com/docs/master/start/
    • https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/tzdata/+bug/1554806
    • http://docs.ceph.com/docs/jewel/rados/configuration/filesystem-recommendations/
    • http://www.virtualtothecore.com/en/adventures-ceph-storage-part-1-introduction/

    Wiki.js is an elegant looking wiki based on Markdown. It supports LDAP and many more authentication mechanisms. In this guide we describe how to install Wiki.js on Ubuntu 16.04.

    Prerequisites

    • An Ubuntu 16.04 instance.

    Install curl, Node.js v8.x and build-essential:

    # apt -y install curl
    # curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_8.x | bash -
    # apt -y install nodejs build-essential
    

    Install MongoDB v3.4

    # apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv 0C49F3730359A14518585931BC711F9BA15703C6
    # echo "deb [ arch=amd64,arm64 ] http://repo.mongodb.org/apt/ubuntu xenial/mongodb-org/3.4 multiverse" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-3.4.list
    # apt update
    # apt -y install mongodb-org
    

    Start MongoDB:

    # systemctl start mongodb
    

    Enable MongoDB at startup:

    # systemctl enable mongodb
    

    Install git

    The version that comes with Ubuntu 16.04 fills the minimum requirements so there is no need to install it from upstream.

    # apt -y install git
    

    Install Wiki.js

    # mkdir /srv/wiki.js
    # cd /srv/wiki.js
    # npm install wiki.js@latest
    

    You will get this message:

    > Browse to http://your-server:3000/ to configure your wiki! (Replaced your-server with the hostname or IP of your server!)
    ▐   ⠂    ▌ I'll wait until you're done ;)
    

    Do as the message says. Let the wizard wait until we are done, and open another shell to work with.

    Setup nginx

    Install Nginx:

    # apt -y install nginx
    

    Create this VirtualHost configuration (/etc/nginx/sites-available/wiki.example.com.conf):

    server {
        listen      [::]:80 ipv6only=off;
        server_name wiki.example.com;
        return      301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
    }
    server {
        listen 443 ssl http2;
        listen [::]:443 ssl http2;
        server_name  wiki.example.com;
    
        ssl_session_timeout 1d;
        ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:50m;
        ssl_session_tickets off;
    
        ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
        ssl_ciphers "EECDH+ECDSA+AESGCM EECDH+aRSA+AESGCM EECDH+ECDSA+SHA384 EECDH+ECDSA+SHA256 EECDH+aRSA+SHA384 EECDH+aRSA+SHA256 EECDH EDH+aRSA !RC4 !aNULL !eNULL !LOW !3DES !MD5 !EXP !PSK !SRP !DSS";
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
    
        ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/wiki.example.com.crt;
        ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/wiki.example.com.key;
        ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/CA.crt;
    
        location / {
            proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
            proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
            proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:3000;
            proxy_http_version 1.1;
            proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
            proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";
            proxy_next_upstream error timeout http_502 http_503 http_504;
        }
    }
    

    Enable the wiki.example.com VirtualHost:

    # cd /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
    # ln -s ../sites-available/wiki.example.com.conf
    # unlink default
    

    Restart Nginx:

    # systemctl restart nginx
    

    Configure Wiki.js

    After the installation you will be asked if you wish to run the configuration wizard. Select this and continue:

    Yes, run configuration wizard on port 3000 (recommended)
    

    Now browse to http://wiki.example.com/ and follow the installation wizard:

    • Welcome!: Start
    • System Check (if all good): Continue
    • General:
      • Site title: ExampleWiki
      • Host: https://wiki.example.com
      • Port: 3000
      • Site UI Language: English
      • Public Access: Not selected
      • Press: Continue
    • Important Considerations: Continue
    • Database: mongodb://localhost:27017/wiki
    • Database Check: Continue:
    • Paths:
      • Local Data Path: ./data
      • Local Repository Path: ./repo
    • Git Repository: Skip this step
    • Git Repository Check: Continue
    • Administrator Account
      • Administrator Email: admin@example.com
      • Password: MySecretCombination
      • ConfirmPassword: MySecretCombination
    • Finalizing: Start

    Enable Wiki.js on startup

    # npm install -g pm2
    # pm2 startup
    # pm2 save
    

    Setup LDAP

    This is an optional step for those wishing to integrate Wiki.js in their LDAP infrastructure.

    Trust CUT IST ISSUING CA

    Connect to the LDAP (AD) server and get all certificates:

    openssl s_client -showcerts -connect dcs03ist00.lim.tepak.int:636 | tee ldap.log
    

    Hit ‘Ctrl-C’ to end the command.

    The certificate with the ID ‘1’ in ldap.log is the ISSUING CA certificate. Extract the CUT IST ISSUING CA certificate and save it in cut_issuing_ca.crt:

    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    MIIF7DCCA9SgAwIBAgITcgAAAAakujIFDl5tvQAAAAAABjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsF
    ADBNMQswCQYDVQQGEwJDWTEoMCYGA1UEChMfQ1lQUlVTIFVOSVZFUlNJVFkgT0Yg
    VEVDSE5PTE9HWTEUMBIGA1UEAxMLQ1VUIFJPT1QgQ0EwHhcNMTUwMzA5MTAyMjAy
    WhcNMjAwMzA5MTAzMjAyWjBeMRMwEQYKCZImiZPyLGQBGRYDaW50MRUwEwYKCZIm
    iZPyLGQBGRYFdGVwYWsxEzARBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEZFgNsaW0xGzAZBgNVBAMTEkNV
    VCBJU1QgSVNTVUlORyBDQTCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEB
    AMPHOqer+ovT+Y99lI4dSYa+XHAnCaup8vbLE9x4iKEjq9gfYq8Gs3Aujx6h32Y8
    DLJcKHgxlzqwn6zzq2YSDziFPCka5bAZswaFqvD6fm22oujRmlUBDrW37OsP3nwJ
    gT5GMUSzvE0ZvcdjotCm2iBDfGryJgU3PFgAvPXVyFq8bV1jTYBP8sqsWssIdOMg
    doN8RLKj6gwJIwA1cvhvnuePU6a2HlHI314GaUqNtyX5PZ5VbUNIQXBt+McPNP0d
    sg8yKzfBtl6V4U9xheKmdKxfIB0rN1L/uqzoewIrwUXab7l9kbSYoKqiPZkYnpEi
    TQ8msXa/6TL0grQR085sugUCAwEAAaOCAbIwggGuMBAGCSsGAQQBgjcVAQQDAgEA
    MB0GA1UdDgQWBBR0NThxWu0JH7JLfLf75h9dis6S6DCBnwYDVR0gBIGXMIGUMIGR
    BgsrBgEEAYLiewEBATCBgTBOBggrBgEFBQcCAjBCHkAAQwBlAHIAdABpAGYAaQBj
    AGEAdABpAG8AbgAgAFAAcgBhAGMAdABpAGMAZQAgAFMAdABhAHQAZQBtAGUAbgB0
    MC8GCCsGAQUFBwIBFiNodHRwczovL3BraS5jdXQuYWMuY3kvcGtpL2Nwcy5odG1s
    ADAZBgkrBgEEAYI3FAIEDB4KAFMAdQBiAEMAQTALBgNVHQ8EBAMCAYYwDwYDVR0T
    AQH/BAUwAwEB/zAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBSY/OKi6F/HKZRvR0574L5dNf4KwzA5BgNV
    HR8EMjAwMC6gLKAqhihodHRwOi8vcGtpLmN1dC5hYy5jeS9jcmwvQ1VULVJPT1Qt
    Q0EuY3JsMEQGCCsGAQUFBwEBBDgwNjA0BggrBgEFBQcwAoYoaHR0cDovL3BraS5j
    dXQuYWMuY3kvcGtpL0NVVC1ST09ULUNBLmNydDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFAAOCAgEA
    IVJPKacKldP8WEFkCNGJq9PIFr5R0MuD6DUSifnnj94Z004ET29+C3sesUsWHMLd
    p1LA+6pmF8JUAUg5Zzab2gV3vHVorYIPlPs2IorhTlnl5k9UCAjBuT3HV1kcCt2R
    L601KYIYN3QIiVaA3k7xOPp+Y9nL/OlvjE3S6MVeC2WJYl1Ai+eZWQpL/SvAA8vH
    NQzCqqNUnCT1zr9Uei71r0elgtoevsRmWRVWPmOl4Sft0amJ5fXDhYvN0KiktDTt
    SeBy+YY48vzbhTRPFhUsj84ePyQcBqtLWQlyhmFs8b+gtSbmYWA1AnWgA+/Fd37Z
    k75/x8qqnyZ4BFBKzEzukIKyapnRf8ARzL6oHo7XIXmkUb4cBzf5asNkqRRcUxrl
    IEPGuGjr0+yo49f0uP3v+xE+Vyam27B3A4hhrgyqIe26/FxlbkyHT7BLhxCSu7kX
    hymb9rZwGy8LR6JVCHhOllXm0eaKiRxFBYcgofekgUfjL5Coip6wAzabtrqE38zX
    EkQ6sFi4hFM2ifVKA6lU1OUfeK1j5hEcmGzyCS+4aWXeY9/tTlDj28Z04cp34jla
    Oc2Q4VBmO6yA1d6L22o9gTb4gvTcghHOJezWeo5PFsSD+GmJfq4JLvaHk9gsbb5D
    099bze3eSDCISoR5ce6mdkD6pr5PfsVfZHhSktc4nk4=
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    

    Verify the certificate with:

    openssl x509 -text -in cut_issuing_ca.crt
    

    Add the CUT ISSUING CA in the trusted chain of the system:

    cp cut_issuing_ca.crt /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/
    update-ca-certificates
    

    Configure LDAP for Wiki.js

    Make these changes in /srv/wiki.js/config.yml:

      ldap:
        enabled: true
        url: 'ldap://ldap.example.com:389'
        bindDn: 'cn=wiki,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com'
        bindCredentials: 'MyLDAPCredentials'
        searchBase: 'ou=people,dc=example,dc=com'
        searchFilter: '(uid={{username}})'
        tlsEnabled: true
        tlsCertPath: '/etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt'
    

    Give Access permissions to authenticated users

    Visit the Admin URL:

    https://wiki.example.com/admin

    Click on ‘Users’. You will get a list of users. You can give ‘Read and Write’ access to them from the ‘Access Rights’ field and you can upgrade them to ‘Global Administrators’ from the ‘Role Override’ field.

    NOTE: For LDAP the users need to login first before they are allowed to write.

    Enjoy your newly created Wiki!

    References

    • https://docs.requarks.io/wiki
    • https://nodejs.org/en/download/package-manager/#debian-and-ubuntu-based-linux-distributions
    • https://docs.mongodb.com/manual/tutorial/install-mongodb-on-ubuntu/

    LXD is a relatively new technology by Canonical. It is a container hypervisor that builds on top of LXC. It shares some similarities with Docker, but LXD focuses on full blown containerized systems, instead of containerized applications.

    LXD/LXC creates lighter systems than VM hypervisors, and it is an easy way to experiment with different software without messing up with your system. You can also use it in production, to run Linux systems with much greater density than on VM hypervisors. The only drawback is that the container must be the same OS as the host (Linux in this case) and it depends on the host for kernel functionality (e.g. modules etc).

    In this guide we will build an LXD container with two virtual NICs which are attached to the physical NIC of it’s host using bridged networking.

    Prerequisites

    • An Ubuntu 16.04 host with two physical NICs

    Prepare host networking

    Install dependencies

    # apt -y install bridge-utils
    

    Setup networking on the host

    There are two interfaces on the host enp3s0 and enp5s0. The first one, enp3s0 is the primary and connects to the main, DHCP enabled, internal network. The second one is connected to an isolated internal network where some critical services are running. There is no DHCP in the isolated network.

    Prepare your /etc/network/interfaces configuration file like this:

    # The loopback network interface 
    auto lo
    iface lo inet loopback
    
    # The main Bridge
    auto br0
    iface br0 inet dhcp
        bridge-ifaces enp3s0
        bridge-ports enp3s0
        up ip link set enp3s0 up
    
    # The primary network interface
    iface enp3s0 inet manual
    
    # The secondary Bridge
    auto br1
    iface br1 inet manual
            bridge-ifaces enp5s0
            bridge-ports enp5s0
            up ip link set enp5s0 up
    
    # The secondary network interface
    iface enp5s0 inet manual
    

    Setup LXC/ LXD

    Installation of LXD

    # apt -y install lxd
    

    Prepare a new profile

    We need a profile with two NICs. First create a new profile:

    # lxc profile copy default dualnic
    

    Then edit the new profile with lxc profile edit dualnic:

    config:
      user.network_mode: link-local
    description: Dual nic profile
    devices:
      eth0:
        name: eth0
        nictype: bridged
        parent: br0
        type: nic
      eth1:
        name: eth1
        nictype: bridged
        parent: br1
        type: nic
    name: dualnic
    

    The names of the virtual interfaces of the container will be eth0 for the primary and eth1 for the secondary.

    Launch the container

    Now we want to launch a Debian jessie container, which we will retrieve from the prepared images on the

    # lxc launch images:debian/jessie mycontainer -p dualnic
    

    List the container:

    # lxc list
    +-------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
    |    NAME     |  STATE  |         IPV4         | IPV6 |    TYPE    | SNAPSHOTS |
    +-------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
    | mycontainer | RUNNING | 192.168.0.122 (eth0) |      | PERSISTENT | 0         |
    +-------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
    

    The IP listed above was set by the DHCP server in the primary network.

    Connect to the container:

    # lxc exec mycontainer bash
    

    Setup container’s networking

    Edit /etc/network/interfaces inside our container:

    auto lo
    iface lo inet loopback
    
    auto eth0
    iface eth0 inet dhcp
    
    auto eth1
    iface eth1 inet static
            address 172.16.16.100
            netmask 255.255.255.0
            network 172.16.16.0
            broadcast 172.16.16.255
            up ip route add 10.10.10.0/24  via 172.16.16.1 dev eth1
            up ip route add 10.10.20.0/24  via 172.16.16.1 dev eth1
    

    The routes 10.10.10.0/24 and 10.10.20.0/24 are internal routes that need to be reached though the secondary network.

    Take a clean snapshot

    Before you start working on your container, it is a good idea to get a clean snapshot, so you can revert to it, in case you mess something up.

    # lxc snapshot mycontainer
    

    If you want to learn more about the and features I urge you to read the excellent introduction to LXD 2.0 by Stéphane Graber

    References

    • https://linuxcontainers.org/
    • https://www.ubuntu.com/containers/lxd
    • https://insights.ubuntu.com/2016/03/14/the-lxd-2-0-story-prologue/
    • https://stgraber.org/2016/03/11/lxd-2-0-blog-post-series-012/
    • https://insights.ubuntu.com/2015/11/10/converting-eth0-to-br0-and-getting-all-your-lxc-or-lxd-onto-your-lan/

    Rocket.Chat is a free/open source software for team collaboration. It is a full featured platform and an ideal alternative to Slack, for organizations that are dedicated to the Free Software philosophy.

    In this guide we will demonstrate how you can setup Rocket.Chat for your organization.

    Prerequisites

    • A Debian stretch VM or server.
    • A FQDN pointing to the system’s IP. We will be using rocket.example.com throughout this guide.

    Installation of rocket.chat

    Install the Snappy package manager

    Snappy is not installed on Debian by default, so we need to install it:

    # apt install snapd ca-certificates
    

    Install Rocket.Chat

    # snap install rocketchat-server
    

    Check its status:

    # systemctl status snap.rocketchat-server.rocketchat-server.service
    ● snap.rocketchat-server.rocketchat-server.service - Service for snap application rocketchat-server.rocketchat-server
       Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/snap.rocketchat-server.rocketchat-server.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
       Active: active (running) since Tue 2017-01-03 12:27:50 PST; 12min ago
     Main PID: 24891 (node)
        Tasks: 10 (limit: 4915)
       CGroup: /system.slice/snap.rocketchat-server.rocketchat-server.service
               └─24891 node /snap/rocketchat-server/326/main.js
    
    Jan 03 12:27:50 rocket systemd[1]: Started Service for snap application rocketchat-server.rocketchat-server.
    

    Check its port (default is 3000):

    # ss -lnptu | grep 3000
    tcp    LISTEN     0      128       *:3000                  *:*                   users:(("node",pid=24891,fd=13))
    

    Looks OK

    Configure TLS

    Install nginx

    The core application does not support TLS so we will be setting up an nginx reverse proxy on top of it.

    Install NGINX and certbot from Let’s Encrypt:

    # apt -y install nginx python-certbot-nginx
    

    Create the VirtualHost

    We need to create this file: /etc/nginx/sites-available/rocket.example.com:

    # Upstreams
    upstream backend {
        server 127.0.0.1:3000;
    }
    
    # HTTP Server
    server {
        listen 80;
        server_name rocket.example.com;
    
        error_log /var/log/nginx/rocketchat.access.log;
    
        location / {
            proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:3000/;
            proxy_http_version 1.1;
            proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
            proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";
            proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
    
            proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
            proxy_set_header X-Forward-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
            proxy_set_header X-Forward-Proto http;
            proxy_set_header X-Nginx-Proxy true;
    
            proxy_redirect off;
        }
    }
    

    Enable the VirtualHost:

    cd /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
    ln -s ../sites-available/rocket.example.com
    systemctl reload nginx
    

    Generate the certificate

    certbot --nginx run -d rocket.example.com
    
    • Enter email address: admin@example.com
    • Agree to the ToS
    • Enforce HTTPS: Secure

    The VirtualHost file (/etc/nginx/sites-available/rocket.example.com) should look like this after the creation of the Let’s Encrypt certificate:

    # Upstreams
    upstream backend {
        server 127.0.0.1:3000;
    }
    
    server {
        listen 80;
        server_name rocket.example.com;
    
        error_log /var/log/nginx/rocketchat.access.log;
    
        location / {
            proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:3000/;
            proxy_http_version 1.1;
            proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
            proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";
            proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
    
            proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
            proxy_set_header X-Forward-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
            proxy_set_header X-Forward-Proto http;
            proxy_set_header X-Nginx-Proxy true;
    
            proxy_redirect off;
        }
    
        listen 443 ssl; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/rocket.example.com/fullchain.pem; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/rocket.example.com/privkey.pem; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_session_cache shared:le_nginx_SSL:1m; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_session_timeout 1440m; # managed by Certbot
    
    ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on; # managed by Certbot
    
    ssl_ciphers "ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256 ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384 ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256 ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384 DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256 DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256 EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA"; # managed by Certbot
    
        if ($scheme != "https") {
            return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
        } # managed by Certbot
    }
    

    Now visit the website to test it: http://rocket.example.com (it should redirect you to https://rocket.example.com)

    Creating an admin account

    Register a new account. You will get this warning:

    WARNING: the setting site URL is configured to http://localhost and you are accessing from https://rocket.example.com. do you want to change to https://rocket.example.com?

    You should ofcourse answer ‘Yes’.

    This first user created is an admin user. You can set global preferences from https://rocket.example.com/admin. Now users can visit the website and register with it. You may wish to Allow Notifications when you are prompted by your browser on your first visit to the site. Rocket.Chat supports many other authentication backends, including LDAP which is described in the next step.

    Besides the web service you can also download native applications for Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, Android and iOS.

    Configure LDAP

    This is an optional step, but recommended if your organization has an LDAP or Active Directory setup. In this example we are using the Fusiondirectory setup from our previous guide.

    Create a service account for rocket.chat, using the DSA module of Fusiondirectory:

    • Username: cn=rocketchat,ou=dsa,dc=example,dc=com
    • Password: MySecretCombination

    Now go to https://rocket.example.com/admin using an admin account and set these:

    • Enable: True
    • Login Fallback: True
    • Host: ldap.example.com
    • Port: 389
    • Encryption: StartTLS
    • CA Cert: Paste the contents of your internal ROOT CA certificate (example.com-rootCA.crt for example)
    • Reject Unauthorized: True
    • Domain Base: ou=people,dc=example,dc=com
    • Use Custom Domain Search: False
    • Domain Search User: cn=rocketchat,ou=dsa,example,dc=com
    • Domain Search Password: MySecretCombination
    • Domain Search User ID: uid
    • Domain Search Object Class: person
    • Domain Search Object Category: Leave Empty
    • Username Field: Leave Empty

    Leave the default settings for the rest and press the SAVE CHANGES button

    You can use the TEST CONNECTION button to test the connection.

    You can now try to login using your LDAP username and password.

    References

    • https://rocket.chat/
    • http://snapcraft.io/docs/core/install#debian
    • https://rocket.chat/docs/installation/manual-installation/ubuntu/snaps
    • https://rocket.chat/docs/installation/manual-installation/configuring-ssl-reverse-proxy
    • https://rocket.chat/docs/administrator-guides/authentication/ldap/

    Less than a year ago I was attracted by the value for money offer of OnePlus 2 and became a proud owner. Being paranoid about Google tracking, I disabled most Google apps. Alas, some apps were impossible to disable. I assumed that this was caused by their dependencies with other core applications. Google play services was one them, but I never created an account with Google and never synced anything with them.

    Time went by and it happened that data over mobile was accidentally enabled. And then I noticed from the mobile data traffic statistics, that Google Play services was creating traffic even without a Google account! Why does this happens its beyond my perception, but anyone is allowed to guess based on [recent history](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PRISM_(surveillance_program)#/media/File:Prism_slide_5.jpg "PRISM Surveillance program"). There is an option to disable background traffic on the stock Android ROM (OxygenOS) but that works only when data over mobile is enabled. With Wi-Fi enabled, Google Play services keeps on sending suspicious traffic, back to mother Google.

    So I decided to look for alternatives to replace OxygenOS with a Google-free Android ROM. These are the options I have investigated:

    • Replicant:
      This seems to be the more privacy respecting Android MOD. No support for OnePlus 2, alas!
    • AOKP:
      This is an interesting MOD with lots of features. There are recent nightly builds for OnePlus 2. I tried to install it my Phone but gave an error when I tried to sideload it.
    • CyanogenMOD:
      A popular Android MOD that was recently discontinued. A fork by the name LineageOS is taking over. No image downloads yet.<br />
      UPDATE (2-Jan-2016): There are some experimental LineageOS images here.
    • Paranoid Android:
      Another successful Android MOD with close ties to OnePlus. It boasts some interesting features. Officially supports all OnePlus models except the latest OnePlus 3T. I tried the OnePlus 2 image but the phone stack to the OnePlus logo boot screen.
    • Exodus:
      This is a minimalistic Android MOD. It is based on AOSP and is free from Google Apps. This is the only MOD I managed to get it working on my OnePlus 2.

    So I decided to go with Exodus. This guide describes the procedure and preparations I followed in order to flash the latest Exodus nightly build for OnePlus 2.

    DISCLAIMER: This guide could renter your device a luxurious brick! Backup everything before you continue. The author of this guide will not be liable for any damages you may cause on your device or any data lost. Proceed at your own risk!

    Now we got that out of the way, let’s continue.

    Prerequisites

    • A PC. In this guide we are using Debian/Ubuntu as the PC’s Operating System but this can work with other Operating Systems, with minor adaptations.
    • An OnePlus 2 smartphone. It could possibly be used for other devices too, but I have only tested this on OnePlus 2.
    • The Android Debug Bridge (ADB). This is part of the Android SDK. On Debian/Ubuntu you can install it with apt install android-tools-adb.
    • A Type-C USB cable to connect the phone to your PC.

    Make your device detectable in Linux

    There is some process we need to follow so that the OnePlus 2 device is detectable by ADB

    Enable Usb Debugging

    To Enable USB Debugging we need to first enable the Developer Options:

    • Go into Settings
    • Dive into the About phone option
    • Tap 7 times on the Build number option
    • Go back and tap on Developer Options
    • Enable USB debugging and OEM unlock

    Enable detection of device under Linux

    First ensure that the device is connected:

    # lsusb
    ...
     Bus 003 Device 039: ID 2a70:f003  
    ...
    

    The device ID for OnePlus 2 is 0x2a70. Set this in * ~/.android/adb_usb.ini*:

    # echo "0x2a70" >> ~/.android/adb_usb.ini
    

    Download the udev rules files (Thanks Nicolas Bernaerts):

    # wget --header='Accept-Encoding:none' -O /etc/udev/rules.d/51-android.rules https://raw.githubusercontent.com/NicolasBernaerts/ubuntu-scripts/master/android/51-android.rules
    # chmod a+r /etc/udev/rules.d/51-android.rules
    # wget --header='Accept-Encoding:none' -O /etc/udev/rules.d/69-mtp.rules https://raw.githubusercontent.com/NicolasBernaerts/ubuntu-scripts/master/android/69-mtp.rules
    # chmod a+r /etc/udev/rules.d/69-mtp.rules
    

    Restart the udev and ADB services:

    # systemctl restart udev
    # adb kill-server
    # adb start-server
    

    NOTE: make sure USB Debugging is enabled otherwise you will still not be able to see the device!

    Verify that the device is present:

    # adb devices 
    List of devices attached 
    da0afea7        unauthorized
    

    Seems OK.

    Backup your data and stock image

    Since we are not using Google’s services we will need to manually backup all important data such as:

    • Export contacts on a .vcf file.
    • Save Pictures and Videos from the phone on your PC
    • Backup every other Applacation data which is important to you.

    You can also backup your entire system with ADB:

    # adb backup -f oneplus2.bck -apk -shared -all
    

    This will take some time depending on the size of your data.

    You can later restore your system back to normal, using this command:

    # adb restore oneplus2.bck
    

    Prepare the recovery image

    Download Prepare the First Aid kit

    This is a bundle that includes all the files needed to bring life to a bricked OnePlus 2 device. It includes a recovery image which we will use to install Exodus (or any other image you wish) on the device.

    # wget -O Firstaid_v_2_0.zip 'http://forum.xda-developers.com/devdb/project/dl/?id=16684&task=get'
    # unzip Firstaid_v_2_0.zip
    

    All the necessary files are in the newly created, Firstaid directory.

    Download TWRP Custom recovery

    The recovery image that comes with Firstaid is somewhat outdated. We will download a more recent version of it and replace it in the Firstaid directory. You can download the more recent TWRP image from here. Do not use wget or other command line tools, just a normal browser to download it.

    NOTE: There are more recent versions than 3.0.2-0 like 3.0.2-1 and 3.0.2-2. You can try those if you feel lucky, but be warned! Those versions did not work on my phone. You can see all the past and resent images here.

    Verify the downloaded image:

    # wget -O twrp-public.asc https://dl.twrp.me/public.asc
    # gpg --import twrp-public.asc
    # wget https://dl.twrp.me/oneplus2/twrp-3.0.2-0-oneplus2.img.asc
    # gpg --verify twrp-3.0.2-0-oneplus2.img.asc twrp-3.0.2-0-oneplus2.img
    

    If you get Good signature from &quot;TeamWin &lt;admin @teamw.in>&quot; that means the image is correct. Now replace the TWRP image that comes with Firstaid with this one:

    # cp twrp-3.0.2-0-oneplus2.img Firstaid/twrp.img
    

    Flash the recovery image

    Reboot to fastboot mode:

    # adb reboot-bootloader
    

    Alternatively you can poweroff the OnePlus 2 and press the Volume UP + Power buttons simultaneously.

    Verify the presence of the device:

    # fastboot devices
    da0afea7               fastboot
    

    Unlock the phone:

    fastboot oem unlock
    

    Flash Firstaid with the recent TWRP recovery image:

    # cd Firstaid
    # ./firstaid.sh
    

    Now unplug the phone from the PC, poweroff and the press the Volume DOWN + Power buttons simultaneously. This will bring your phone into TWRP recovery.

    Flashing the Exodus image

    Download Exodus image and verify

    Download the latest Exodus image for OnePlus 2 here:

    # wget http://exodus-developers.net/exodus-6.0/oneplus2/exodus-6.0-20161111-NIGHTLY-oneplus2.zip
    # wget http://exodus-developers.net/exodus-6.0/oneplus2/exodus-6.0-20161111-NIGHTLY-oneplus2.zip.md5 
    

    Verify that the download is correct:

    # cat exodus-6.0-20161111-NIGHTLY-oneplus2.zip.md5 ; md5sum exodus-6.0-20161111-NIGHTLY-oneplus2.zip
    35dcf9ea73648682a36e673f5ed8f0eb  /android/exodus-6.0/out/target/product/oneplus2/exodus-6.0-20161111-NIGHTLY-oneplus2.zip
    35dcf9ea73648682a36e673f5ed8f0eb  exodus-6.0-20161111-NIGHTLY-oneplus2.zip
    

    Seems OK

    Plug the phone back to the PC and ensure that it is detectable by ADB:

    # adb devices 
    List of devices attached 
    da0afea7        device
    

    Flash the Exodus image

    Follow these steps:

    • Wipe old data: Select Wipe and then Swipe to Factory Reset. You may need to format the system if the previous system was encrypted.
    • Enter the Sideload mode: From the TWRP start menu select Advanced then ADB Sideload and then Swipe to Start Sideload
    • From the PC’s CLI run the following command:
    # adb sideload exodus-6.0-20161111-NIGHTLY-oneplus2.zip
    

    Wait and then reboot into the new Exodus system when done.

    Optional steps

    Install F-Droid:

    By default Exodus has a minimal set of apps. Since we are not using Google Apps we will need to install F-Droid:

    # wget https://f-droid.org/FDroid.apk
    # adb install FDroid.apk
    

    Lock your Phone

    Setup a PIN or Pattern to lock the screen of your phone when not in use: Settings -> Security -> Screen Lock. Avoid fingerprint as it can be easily bypassed.

    Encrypt phone

    Encrypting your phone will protect your data if it gets stolen or confiscated. These are the steps Settings -> Security -> Encrypt phone. Your phone will need to be plugged to charger and charged to 80% or above, otherwise the system will refuse to start the encryption process.

    Restoring the Stock OxygenOS System

    If you decide that you don’t like Exodus or any other MOD that you have installed, you can restore your phone back to the stock OxygenOS. These instructions can also be used to restore your phone’s functionality after you have accidentally bricked it.

    Download necessary images

    Download the stock OxygenOS 3.0.2 image from here. Verify the download with:

    # echo 46b1fde116275d83d05c2dd89422069f ; md5sum OnePlus2Oxygen_14_OTA_019_all_1606041303.zip
    46b1fde116275d83d05c2dd89422069f
    46b1fde116275d83d05c2dd89422069f  OnePlus2Oxygen_14_OTA_019_all_1606041303.zip
    

    Download the upgrade patch for Oxygen 3.1.0 from here. Verify the download with:

    # echo 9cfa9a2a4c7fada6f9db79ea660251d0 ; md5sum OnePlus2Oxygen_14_OTA_019-020_patch_1608262242.zip 
    9cfa9a2a4c7fada6f9db79ea660251d0
    9cfa9a2a4c7fada6f9db79ea660251d0  OnePlus2Oxygen_14_OTA_019-020_patch_1608262242.zip
    

    Optionally you can download the SuperSU image if you would like your OxygenOS rooted:

    # wget -O supersu.zip 'https://download.chainfire.eu/743/SuperSU/BETA-SuperSU-v2.52.zip?retrieve_file=1'
    

    Flash Recover image

    First we need to restore the recovery ROM from Firstaid:

    # cd Firstaid
    # ./firstaid.sh
    

    Flash the Oxygen Images.

    Before we install the OxygenOS image it is recommended to wipe the phone: From the TWRP menu select Wipe and then Swipe to factory reset. If the system was previously encrypted you will need to use TWRP to format it before the wipe.

    Then we need to set the device into Sideload mode: Select Advanced -> ADB Sideload -> Swipe to Start Sideload.

    First install the OxygenOS 3.0.2 image:

    adb sideload OnePlus2Oxygen_14_OTA_019_all_1606041303.zip
    

    Then re-enable ADB Sideload and load the Oxygen 3.2.0 patch:

    adb sideload OnePlus2Oxygen_14_OTA_019-020_patch_1608262242.zip
    

    Optionally you can also load the SuperSU application as well

    adb sideload supersu.zip
    

    Finally reboot into the new system and enjoy your freshly formatted phone.

    References

    • http://bernaerts.dyndns.org/android/339-android-oneplustwo-oneplusx-enable-adb-mtp-detection-ubuntu-trusty
    • https://forum.xda-developers.com/devdb/project/dl/?id=16684
    • https://twrp.me/
    • https://twrp.me/devices/oneplustwo.html
    • https://github.com/TeamExodus/device_oneplus_oneplus2
    • http://exodus-developers.net/
    • https://github.com/TeamExodus/device_oneplus_oneplus2</admin>

    Most registrars they provide a DNS service when you purchase a domain name. But having your own DNS servers means more control to you. And if you are an aspiring sysadmin, you will find it fun and educational. We will be using BIND 9 which is, by far the most popular DNS implementation.

    Prerequisites

    We will need two systems (VMs or containers) preferably on different geographic locations and different providers. One will be the master and the other system, the slave. This guide works for recent Debian or Ubuntu systems.

    Some assumptions:

    • Master DNS:
      • Hostname: ns1.example.com
      • IP: 1.1.1.1
    • Slave DNS:
      • Hostname: ns2.example.com
      • IP: 2.2.2.2
    • Webserver:
      • Hostname: example.com (www.example.com is an alias)
      • IP: 3.3.3.3
    • Main mailserver:
      • Hostname: mx1.example.com ({mail,smtp,pop,imap,webmail}.example.com are aliases)
      • IP: 4.4.4.4
    • Backup mailserver:
      • Hostname: mx2.example.com
      • IP: 5.5.5.5

    Preparations

    Setup the /etc/hosts file

    On master’s /etc/hosts:

    1.1.1.1    ns1.example.com ns1
    

    On slave’s /etc/hosts:

    2.2.2.2    ns2.example.com ns2
    

    Installing BIND

    NOTE: all commands must be applied to both master and slave unless otherwise stated

    apt-get -y install bind9 bind9utils
    

    Allow port 53:

    ufw allow 53
    

    Configure the global options

    Make the following changes in the /etc/bind/named.conf.options of both servers:

    --- /etc/bind/named.conf.options        2016-12-12 14:44:57.163515708 -0500
    +++ /etc/bind/named.conf.options.new    2016-12-12 14:52:29.749268250 -0500
    @@ -1,5 +1,7 @@
     options {
            directory "/var/cache/bind";
    +       recursion no;
    +       allow-transfer { none; };
    
            // If there is a firewall between you and nameservers you want
            // to talk to, you may need to fix the firewall to allow multiple
    

    Configure the local options

    On master’s /etc/bind/named.conf.local:

    --- /etc/bind/named.conf.local  2016-12-12 20:06:27.000000000 +0000
    +++ /etc/bind/named.conf.local.new      2016-12-12 20:07:03.000000000 +0000
    @@ -6,3 +6,8 @@
     // organization
     //include "/etc/bind/zones.rfc1918";
    
    +zone "example.com" {
    +    type master;
    +    file "/etc/bind/db.example.com";
    +    allow-transfer { 2.2.2.2; };
    +};
    

    On slave’s /etc/bind/named.conf.local:

    --- /etc/bind/named.conf.local  2016-11-01 13:02:24.000000000 -0400
    +++ /etc/bind/named.conf.local.new      2016-12-12 15:09:47.445235343 -0500
    @@ -6,3 +6,8 @@
     // organization
     //include "/etc/bind/zones.rfc1918";
    
    +zone "example.com" {
    +    type slave;
    +    file "db.example.com";
    +    masters { 1.1.1.1; };
    +};
    

    Create the zone file

    On master server create the zone file (/etc/bind/db.example.com):

    $TTL 3600
    @    IN    SOA    ns1.example.com.    root.example.com. (
                                                2016121201
                                                7200
                                                3600
                                                1209600
                                                180 )
    
    ; NS Records
    @       300    IN      NS              ns1.example.com.
    @       300    IN      NS              ns2.example.com.
    
    ; MX Records
    @       300    IN      MX      10      mx1.example.com.
    @       300    IN      MX      20      mx2.example.com.
    
    ; Address records
    @       300    IN      A               3.3.3.3
    ns1     300    IN      A               1.1.1.1
    ns2     300    IN      A               2.2.2.2
    mx1     300    IN      A               4.4.4.4
    mx1     300    IN      A               5.5.5.5
    
    ; Alias (Canonical Name) records
    www     300    IN      CNAME           example.com.
    mail    300    IN      CNAME           mx1.example.com.
    smtp    300    IN      CNAME           mx1.example.com.
    imap    300    IN      CNAME           mx1.example.com.
    pop     300    IN      CNAME           mx1.example.com.
    webmail 300    IN      CNAME           mx1.example.com.
    
    ; TXT records
    @       300    IN      TXT             "v=spf1 a mx ?all"
    

    Verify the global configuration

    Run the named-checkconf command on both servers. If you get any errors you should fix them before proceeding.

    Verify the zone configuration

    Run the following command on the master server:

    named-checkzone theo-andreou.org /etc/bind/db.example.com 
    zone example.com/IN: loaded serial 2016121201
    OK
    

    If you get ‘OK’ then your setup is correct, otherwise you should fix it before proceeding.

    Restart bind and test your servers

    systemctl restart bind9.service
    

    Now test if your servers resolve your records.

    The master:

    dig smtp.example.com @1.1.1.1
    ...
    ;; ANSWER SECTION:
    smtp.example.com.   300 IN  CNAME   mx1.example.com.
    mx1.example.com.    300 IN  A   4.4.4.4
    ...
    

    The slave:

    dig smtp.example.com @2.2.2.2
    ...
    ;; ANSWER SECTION:
    smtp.example.com.   300 IN  CNAME   mx1.example.com.
    mx1.example.com.    300 IN  A   4.4.4.4
    ...
    

    If you get any errors you can check your syslog file (/var/log/syslog).

    Finalizing

    After you have tested that everything is OK, it is time to tell your registrar about the new servers. This is called setting the glue records and you should consult the documentation of your registrar on how to do that. Ask support if you have any trouble.

    References

    • https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-configure-bind-as-an-authoritative-only-dns-server-on-ubuntu-14-04

    In this guide we will show how you can remotely decrypt a headless Debian or Ubuntu Linux system, that has been encrypted with LUKS.

    Prerequisites

    • A LUKS encrypted Debian jessie or Ubuntu xenial system
    • Keyboard and monitor for the initial system setup
    • Allow SSH root access on the decrypted system using public key authentication
    • Use a different port for ssh (assuming port 4422) on the decrypted system

      NOTE: using a different port than the standard SSH port (22) serves a double purpose. For once, you will not received the scary WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED! message every time you will try to remotely unlock the system and as an additional bonus you will get less SSH attacks on the active system.

    Installing dropbear

    Dropbear is a lightweight SSH server especially suitable for initial ramdisk (initrd) environments and other lightweight systems.

    Install dropbear:

    # apt -y install dropbear
    

    Setup public key authentication for dropbear

    Create the homedir for the root user and the SSH configuration directory:

    # mkdir -p /etc/initramfs-tools/root/.ssh
    

    Append your client SSH pubkey to authorized_keys:

    # cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh -p 4422 root@encrypted-system "cat >> /etc/initramfs-tools/root/.ssh/authorized_keys"
    

    Setup a static IP for the unlock environment

    This step is optional but highly recommended if you are setting up a static, permanent service. If you skip this step DHCP will kick in, provided you have a DHCP Server in your environment.

    Run this command to update the /etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf configuration file:

    echo IP=10.0.0.67::10.0.0.1:255.255.255.0:encrypted-system:eth0:off >> /etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf
    

    Explanation of the different fields:
    [host_ip]::[gateway_ip]:[netmask]:[hostname]:[device]:[autoconf]

    NOTE: there are two successive colons (::) after the host_ip.

    Setup the unlock script

    Copy the following text in /etc/initramfs-tools/hooks/crypt_unlock.sh:

    #!/bin/sh
    #
    # By Stinky Parkia
    # https://stinkyparkia.wordpress.com/2014/10/14/remote-unlocking-luks-encrypted-lvm-using-dropbear-ssh-in-ubuntu-server-14-04-1-with-static-ipst/
    
    PREREQ="dropbear"
    
    prereqs() {
        echo "$PREREQ"
    }
    
    case "$1" in
        prereqs)
        prereqs
        exit 0
        ;;
    esac
    
    . "${CONFDIR}/initramfs.conf"
    . /usr/share/initramfs-tools/hook-functions
    
    if [ "${DROPBEAR}" != "n" ] && [ -r "/etc/crypttab" ] ; then
        cat > "${DESTDIR}/bin/unlock" < < EOF
    #!/bin/sh
    if PATH=/lib/unlock:/bin:/sbin /scripts/local-top/cryptroot; then
        kill \`ps | grep cryptroot | grep -v "grep" | awk '{print \$1}'\`
        # following line kill the remote shell right after the passphrase has
        # been entered.
        kill -9 \`ps | grep "\-sh" | grep -v "grep" | awk '{print \$1}'\`
        exit 0
    fi
    exit 1
    EOF
    
        chmod 755 "${DESTDIR}/bin/unlock"
    
        mkdir -p "${DESTDIR}/lib/unlock"
        cat > "${DESTDIR}/lib/unlock/plymouth" < < EOF
    #!/bin/sh
    [ "\$1" == "--ping" ] && exit 1
    /bin/plymouth "\$@"
    EOF
    
        chmod 755 "${DESTDIR}/lib/unlock/plymouth"
    
        echo To unlock root-partition run "unlock" >> ${DESTDIR}/etc/motd
    fi
    

    Make the script executable:

    # chmod +x /etc/initramfs-tools/hooks/crypt_unlock.sh
    

    Apply the configuration

    Apply the changes in the initial ramdisk:

    # update-initramfs -u
    

    Reboot the system:

    # reboot
    

    Remotely unlock the system

    From your client, SSH into the initial ramdisk:

    ssh root@encrypted-system 
    

    If everything is correct you will be greeted by this MOTD:

    To unlock root-partition run unlock
    
    
    BusyBox v1.22.1 (Ubuntu 1:1.22.0-15ubuntu1) built-in shell (ash)
    Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.
    

    Unlock the system and boot into it:

    # unlock
    Please unlock disk sda3_crypt: 
    

    You will get the following message and you will exit the remote shell if successful:

    cryptsetup: sda3_crypt set up successfully
    Connection to 10.0.0.67 closed.
    

    You can now login to the active Linux system using the alternative port 4422:

    ssh -p 4422 root@encrypted-system
    

    If you can login successfully to your system you can remove the keyboard and monitor and hide your system somewhere where the Sun does not shine :).

    Thanks to Stinky Parkia for the excellent guide and the brilliant unlock script.

    References

    • https://stinkyparkia.wordpress.com/2014/10/14/remote-unlocking-luks-encrypted-lvm-using-dropbear-ssh-in-ubuntu-server-14-04-1-with-static-ipst/